Research

BEAN INSTITUTE NUTRITION & HEALTH RESEARCH DATABASE

Welcome to the Bean Institute Nutrition and Health Research Database! This resource summarizes research articles related to the nutrition content of dry edible beans, and the human nutrition and health-related outcomes and benefits associated with dry-edible bean consumption.

The database contains 160 articles published from 2007 – 2019. Each article includes the citation, link to PubMed abstract, link to free, full-text article (if available), and a summary of the major objectives and findings of the study.

  • 2012, Diabetes Insulin Resistance Metabolic Syndrome
    A bean-free diet increases the risk of all-cause mortality among Taiwanese women: the role of metabolic syndrome.
    Chang, WC, Wahlqvist, ML, Chang, HY, Hsu, CC, Lee, MS, Wang, WS, Hsiung, CA. A bean-free diet increases the risk of all-cause mortality among Taiwanese women: the role of metabolic syndrome. Public Health Nutr. 2012; 15(4): 663-72.
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the associations with chronic disease risk and mortality of the consequences of bean-free diets in Taiwanese adults with regard to gender. Results indicate that a bean-free diet may play a role in developing metabolic syndrome in both genders, and is a significant predictor of all-cause mortality in Taiwanese women but not men.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2013, Cancer
    A hemagglutinin from northeast red beans with immunomodulatory activity and anti-proliferative and apoptosis-inducing activities toward tumor cells.
    Chan, YS, Wong, JH, Fang, EF, Pan, W, Ng, TB. A hemagglutinin from northeast red beans with immunomodulatory activity and anti-proliferative and apoptosis-inducing activities toward tumor cells. Protein Pept Lett. 2013; 20(10): 1159-69.
    Hemagglutinin from the northeast red bean was purified and its stability, immunostimulatory effects, antiproliferative actions, and apoptosis activities were analyzed.
    PubMed Abstract
    Full Article
  • 2016, Colon Colorectal Cancer
    A hemagglutinin isolated from Northeast China black beans induced mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells.
    Dan, X, Ng, TB, Wong, JH, Chan, YS, Cheung, RC, Chan WY. A hemagglutinin isolated from Northeast China black beans induced mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2016; 1863(9): 2201-11.
    This study examines the interaction between hemagglutinin isolated from an edible legume with two colorectal cancer cell lines. The results indicate that the hemagglutinin could successfully enter the cytoplasm of colorectal cancer cells and adversely affect their growth.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2014, Weight Management
    A high-fibre bean-rich diet versus a low-carbohydrate diet for obesity.
    Tonstad, S, Malik, N, Haddad, E. A high-fibre bean-rich diet versus a low-carbohydrate diet for obesity. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2014; 29 (Suppl 2): 109-16.
    In this study researchers compared a high-fiber diet rich in beans to a low-carbohydrate diet in a randomized control trial to assess the impact on weight loss and other outcomes. The researchers found that the high-fiber bean rich diet was as effective as the low-carbohydrate diet for weight loss, and the high-fiber/bean-rich diet was more effective in lowering total and LDL cholesterol.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2011, Heart Health
    A higher ratio of beans to white rice is associated with lower cardiometabolic risk factors in Costa Rican adults.
    Mattei, J, Hu, FB, Campos, H. A higher ratio of beans to white rice is associated with lower cardiometabolic risk factors in Costa Rican adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011; 94(3): 869-76.
    The objective of this study was to determine the association between intake of white rice and beans and its impact on cardiometabolic risk factors in Costa Rican adults without diabetes. Results demonstrate that substituting one serving of beans for one serving of white rice is associated with a 35% lower risk of the metabolic syndrome. The researchers conclude that increasing the ratio of beans to white rice, or limiting the intake of white rice by substituting beans, may lower cardiometabolic risk factors.
    PubMed Abstract
    Full Article
  • 2011, Diabetes Insulin Resistance Metabolic Syndrome
    A legume-based hypocaloric diet reduces proinflammatory status and improves metabolic features in overweight/obese subjects.
    Hermsdorff, HH, Zulet, MA, Abete, I, Martinez, JA. A legume-based hypocaloric diet reduces proinflammatory status and improves metabolic features in overweight/obese subjects. Eur J Nutr. 2011; 50(1): 61-9.
    This study assessed the effects of two hypocaloric diets (legume-restricted- vs. legume-based diet) on metabolic and inflammatory changes, accompanying weight loss. The consumption of legumes (4 servings/week) within a hypocaloric diet resulted in a reduction in proinflammatory markers, such as C-reactive protein and complement C3, and a clinically significant improvement of some metabolic features (lipid profile and blood pressure) in overweight/ obese subjects.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2014, Cancer
    A non-digestible fraction of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis during early carcinogenesis.
    Feregrino-Perez, AA, Pinol-Felis, C, Gomez-Arbones, X, Guevara-Gonzalez, RG, Campos-Vega, R, Acosta-Gallegos, J, Loarca-Pina, G. A non-digestible fraction of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis during early carcinogenesis. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2014; 69(3): 248-54.
    The purpose of this study was to identify cell cycle alterations and morphological changes induced by treatment with azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colon cancer, and to examine the formation of colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in male rats fed the non-digestible fraction (NDF) of cooked common beans. Rats treated with NDF + AOM exhibited a significantly lower number of colonic ACF, as well as higher number of apoptotic cells. NDF inhibited colon carcinogenesis by inducing cell cycle arrest of colon cells and morphological changes linked to apoptosis.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2017, Heart Health
    A pilot randomized controlled clinical trial to assess tolerance and efficacy of navy bean and rice bran supplementation for lowering cholesterol in children.
    Borresen, EC et al. A pilot randomized controlled clinical trial to assess tolerance and efficacy of navy bean and rice bran supplementation for lowering cholesterol in children. Glob Pediatr Health. 2017; 16(4): doi: 10.1177/2333794X17694231.
    The purpose of this study was to determine whether cooked navy bean powder (NBP) and/or heat-stabilized rice bran (RB) supplementation is tolerable, improves dietary fiber intake in children, and modulates lipid profiles. Children ages 8 to 13 years old in the intervention group (study provided muffins or a smooth daily that included NBP and/or RB supplementation) increased total fiber intake, and HDL-cholesterol was higher in the NBP-group compared to the control.
    PubMed Abstract
    Full Article
  • 2017, Cancer
    A Pooled Analysis of 15 Prospective Cohort Studies on the Association between Fruit, Vegetable, and Mature Bean Consumption and Risk of Prostrate Cancer.
    Petimar J, Wilson KM, Wu K, Wang M, Albanes D, van den Brandt P, Cook MB, Giles GG, Giovannucci EL, Goodman GE, Goodman PJ, Håkansson N, Helzlsouer K, Key TJ, Kolonel LN, Liao LM, Männistö S, McCullough ML, Milne RL, Neuhouser ML, Park Y, Platz EA, Riboli E, Sawada N, Schenk JM, Tsugane S, Verhage B, Wang Y, Wilkens LR, Wolk A, Ziegler RG, Smith-Warner SA.. A Pooled Analysis of 15 Prospective Cohort Studies on the Association between Fruit, Vegetable, and Mature Bean Consumption and Risk of Prostate Cancer. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention. 2017; 1276-1287.
    Relationships between fruit, vegetable, and mature bean consumption and prostate cancer risk are unclear. We examined associations between fruit and vegetable groups, specific fruits and vegetables, and mature bean consumption and prostate cancer risk overall, by stage and grade, and for prostate cancer mortality in a pooled analysis of 15 prospective cohorts, including 52,680 total cases and 3,205 prostate cancer-related deaths among 842,149 men. Diet was measured by a food frequency questionnaire or similar instrument at baseline. We calculated study-specific relative risks using Cox proportional hazards regression, and then pooled these estimates using a random effects model.
    PubMed Abstract
    Full Article
  • 2012, Heart Health
    A pulse-based diet is effective for reducing total and LDL-cholesterol in older adults.
    Abeysekara, S, Chilibeck, PD, Vatanparast, H, Zello, GA. A pulse-based diet is effective for reducing total and LDL-cholesterol in older adults. Br J Nutr. 2012; 108 (Suppl 1): S103-10.
    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a pulse-based diet in individuals 50 years or older for reducing cardiovascular (CVD) risk factors. Compared with the regular diet, the pulse-based diet decreased total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol. The researched conclude that a pulse-based diet is effective to reduce the risk of CVD.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2016, Colon Colorectal Cancer
    A randomized controlled trial to increase navy bean or rice bran consumption in colorectal cancer survivors.
    Borresen, EC et al. A randomized controlled trial to increase navy bean or rice bran consumption in colorectal cancer survivors. Nutr Cancer. 2016; 68(8): 1269-1280.
    This randomized controlled trial looked at the feasibility of increasing navy bean (NB) and rice bran (RB) intake in colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors to increase dietary fiber and examined serum inflammatory biomarkers and telomere length. Subjects who received navy bean powder and rice bran increased dietary fiber, and the study supports the feasibility of increasing dietary NB and RB consumption to levels association with CRC chemoprevention.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2019, Overall Nutrition Health Benefits
    A Randomized Feeding Trial of Iron-Biofortified Beans on School Children in Mexico.
    Finkelstein JL, Mehta S, Villalpando S, Mundo-Rosas 4, Luna SV, Rahn M, Shamah-Levy T, Beebe SE, Haas JD. A Randomized Feeding Trial of Iron-Biofortified Beans on School Children in Mexico. Nutrients. 2019; 11(2).
    Iron deficiency is a major public health problem worldwide, with the highest burden among children. The objective of this randomized efficacy feeding trial was to determine the effects of consuming iron-biofortified beans (Fe-Beans) on the iron status in children, compared to control beans (Control-Beans). A cluster-randomized trial of biofortified beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L), bred to enhance iron content, was conducted over 6 months. During the 104 days when feeding was monitored, the total mean individual iron intake from the study beans (Fe-bean group) was 504 mg (IQR: 352, 616) over 68 mean feeding days, and 295 mg (IQR: 197, 341) over 67 mean feeding days in the control group (p < 0.01). During the cluster-randomized efficacy trial, indicators of iron status, including hemoglobin, serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, and total body iron concentrations improved from the baseline to endline (6 months) in both the intervention and control groups. However, Fe-Beans did not significantly improve the iron status indicators, compared to Control-Beans. Similarly, there were no significant effects of Fe-Beans on dichotomous outcomes, including anemia and iron deficiency, compared to Control-Beans. In this 6-month cluster-randomized efficacy trial of iron-biofortified beans in school children in Mexico, indicators of iron status improved in both the intervention and control groups. However, there were no significant effects of Fe-Beans on iron biomarkers, compared to Control-Beans.
    PubMed Abstract
    Full Article
  • 2014, Other
    A review of the Hispanic paradox: time to spill the beans?
    Young, RP, Hopkins, RJ. A review of the Hispanic paradox: time to spill the beans? Eur Respir Rev. 2014; 23(134): 439-49.
    PubMed Abstract
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  • 2014, Cancer
    A thermostable trypsin inhibitor with antiproliferative activity from small pinto beans.
    Chan, YS, Zhang, Y, Sze, SC, Ng, TB. A thermostable trypsin inhibitor with antiproliferative activity from small pinto beans. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2014; 29(4): 485-90.
    Small pinto beans produce a 16-kDA trypsin inhibitor. This study examined its pH and heat stability, as well as antiproliferative activity.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2015, Other
    Acceptability and characterization of extruded pinto, navy and black beans.
    Simons, CW, Hall, C 3rd, Tulbek, M, Mendis, M, Heck, T, Ogunyemi, S. Acceptability and characterization of extruded pinto, navy and black beans. J Sci Food Agric. 2015; 95(11): 2287-91.
    This study created a new bean product by milling pinto, navy and black beans to create a flour that was extruded into puffs. These puffs were evaluated for appearance, flavor, texture and overall acceptability. The findings suggest that there was a minimal effect on protein and fiber content, a significant reduction in raffinose content, and general acceptability of the puffs.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2019, Heart Health
    Anti-inflammatory Effect and Cellular Uptake Mechanism of Peptides from Common Bean (Phaseolus vulga L.) Milk and Yogurts in Caco-2 Mono- and Caco-2/EA.hy926 Co-culture Models.
    Chen Y, Zhang H, Mats L, Liu R, Deng Z, Mine Y, Tsao R. Anti-inflammatory Effect and Cellular Uptake Mechanism of Peptides from Common Bean (Phaseolus vulga L.) Milk and Yogurts in Caco-2 Mono- and Caco-2/EA.hy926 Co-culture Models. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2019; 67(30):8370-8381.
    Naturally occurring dietary peptides derived from gastrointestinal digestates of common bean milk and yogurt were studied for their bioaccessibility, bioavailability, and anti-inflammatory activity in both Caco-2 mono- and Caco-2/EA.hy926 co-culture cell models. Anti-inflammatory activities of these peptide extracts were found to be strongly associated with cellular uptake by the intestinal epithelial cells. Mechanisms underlying the cellular uptake were studied by examining the role of peptide transporter 1 and calcium sensing reporter. Three peptides, including γ-glutamyl-S-methylcysteine, γ-glutamyl-leucine, and leucine-leucine-valine, were found to be transported across the Caco-2 cell monolayer and detected by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A strong anti-inflammatory effect was observed in the basolateral EA.hy926 cells (co-culture model), as shown in their inhibition of tumor necrosis factor α-induced pro-inflammatory mediators of the nuclear factor κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase signal cascades. The results suggest that these peptides can be absorbed and possibly have systemic inhibition on inflammatory responses in vascular endothelial cells, indicating potential preventive effects on vascular diseases.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2019, Diabetes Insulin Resistance Metabolic Syndrome
    Antihyperglycemic and hypoglycemic activity of naturally occurring peptides and protein hydrolysates from easy-to-cook beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).
    Valencia-Mejía E, Batista KA, Fernández JJA, Fernandes KF. Antihyperglycemic and hypoglycemic activity of naturally occurring peptides and protein hydrolysates from easy-to-cook and hard-to-cook beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Food Research International. 2019; 121:238-246.
    The present study was undertaken to examine the antidiabetic potential of naturally occurring peptides and hydrolysate fractions from easy-to-cook (ETC) and hard-to-cook (HTC) beans. All fractions were tested regarding their in vitro inhibitory activities against α-amylase and α-glucosidase as well as in vivo anti-hyperglycemic and hypoglycemic effects. Results evidenced that the peptide fractions with the lowest molecular weight (<3 kDa) have the highest inhibitory activities, and a 16.9%-89.1% inhibition of α-amylase and 34.4%-89.2% inhibition of α-glucosidase were observed. Regarding the antihyperglycemic activity, the fraction ETCNO3-10 showed a better performance than the positive control (acarbose). In addition, results from hypoglycemic activity evidenced that the tested peptide fractions were able to decrease the glucose levels at the same extension of glibenclamide, maintaining a constant basal glucose level without a postprandial hyperglycemia peak. Finally, it is possible to suggest that the naturally occurring peptides and hydrolysate fractions obtained from ETC and HTC common beans could be used in functional food production or pharmaceutical formulations to prevent diabetes.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2015, Cancer
    Antimutagenic and antioxidant activity of a selected lectin-free common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in two cell-based models.
    Frassinetti, S, Gabriele, M, Caltavuturo, L, Longo, V, Pucci, L. Antimutagenic and antioxidant activity of a selected lectin-free common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in two cell-based models. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2015; 70(1): 35-41.
    This study evaluated the antioxidant and anti-mutagenic effects of a fermented powder of a lectin-free and phaseolamin-enriched variety of common bean, named Lady Joy. Lady Joy lysate (Lys-LJ) showed an antimutagenic effect in yeast and a strong scavenging activity in yeast and human cells.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2017, Cancer
    Antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of black turtle bean extracts on human breast cancer cell line through extrinsic and intrinsic pathway.
    Kumar S, Sharma VK, Yadav S, Dey S. Antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of black turtle bean extracts on human breast cancer cell line through extrinsic and intrinsic pathway. Chemistry Central Journal. 2017; Vol. 11, Article number: 56.
    The black turtle bean (BTB) is most widely consumed legume all over the world having anticancer activity. The aim of the study was to analyse the apoptotic effects of BTB extracts on human breast cancer cell lines. Plant extract was prepared by homogenization and centrifugation. The cytotoxic effects of BTB was evaluated by MTT assay and their apoptotic effects were characterized by DNA fragmentation, nuclear staining assay, mitochondrial membrane potential analysis, annexin-V FITC and caspase 3/7 activity assay. The changes in cell cycle and gene expression of cell lines were analysed by flow cytometry and qRT-PCR, respectively. BTB extract showed cytotoxicity with IC50 values of 50 μg/ml in MCF-7 and MDA-MB231 cells. The caspase 3/7 was activated in the cancer cells treated with BTB extract leading to cell death by apoptosis. Moreover, there was significant increase in the expression of Bax as well as decrease in the Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL expression with in a dose dependent manner in both cells. It induces cell cycle arrest in S and G2/M phase in MCF-7 and MDA-MB231 cells, respectively. The mitochondrial membrane potential was decreased in BTB treated cells thereby transducing the apoptotic signal through the mitochondrial pathway and it also causes DNA fragmentation. Thus, it can be concluded that BTB induces the apoptosis in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells through intrinsic and extrinsic pathway and can be explored further for promising candidate to combat breast cancer. BTB extract exhibit anti-cancer activity by inducing apoptosis in breast cancer cell lines.
    PubMed Abstract
    Full Article
  • 2017, Diabetes Insulin Resistance Metabolic Syndrome
    Assessing beans as a source of intrinsic fiber on satiety in men and women with metabolic syndrome.
    Reverri EJ, Randolph JM, Kappagoda CT, Park E, Edirisinghe I, Burton-Freeman BM. Assessing beans as a source of intrinsic fiber on satiety in men and women with metabolic syndrome. Appetite. 2017; 118:75-81.
    Dietary fiber is well-known for its satiety inducing properties. Adding fibers to mixed dishes is one way to increase fiber intake. However, adding fibers to foods versus including foods inherently containing fiber may reveal differing effects on satiety. The present study aimed to explore the satiety effects of adding fiber to a mixed meal versus using beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) as a source of intrinsic fiber in the meal. In this pilot study, 12 men and women with metabolic syndrome were randomly assigned to eat three standard meals in a crossover design on three different occasions that contained either no added fiber (control (NF)), extrinsic or added fiber (AF), or whole black beans as the source of intrinsic fiber (BN). Meals were matched for energy and macronutrient composition. Five hour postprandial subjective satiety was measured along with blood glucose, insulin, and the GI hormones, cholecystokinin (CCK) and peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY3-36). All meals induced fullness to a similar degree; however, the AF meal suppressed prospective consumption (F2,187 = 9.05, P = 0.0002) compared to the BN or NF meals. The NF meal tended to result in more satisfaction than the BN meal (F2,187 = 5.91, P = 0.003). The BN meal produced significantly higher postprandial CCK concentrations compared to the AF (F2,187 = 6.82, P = 0.001) and NF meals (F2,187 = 6.82, P = 0.002). Similar findings were observed for PYY3-36 response for BN > AF meal (F2,170 = 9.11, P < 0.0001). Postprandial insulin was significantly reduced after the BN meal, compared to the NF (F2,187 = 22.36, P < 0.0001) meal. These findings suggest that incorporating whole black beans into a meal has acute beneficial metabolic and GI hormone responses in adults with metabolic syndrome and are preferred over adding equivalent amounts of fiber from a supplement.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2013, Diabetes Insulin Resistance Metabolic Syndrome
    Association between legume intake and self-reported diabetes among adult men and women in India.
    Agrawal, S, Ebrahim, S. Association between legume intake and self-reported diabetes among adult men and women in India. BMC Public Health.. 2013; 13: 706.
    PubMed Abstract
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  • 2008, Overall Nutrition Health Benefits
    Bean consumption is associated with greater nutrient intake, reduced systolic blood pressure, lower body weight, and a smaller waist circumference in adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002.
    Papanikolaou, Y, Fulgoni, VL 3rd. Bean consumption is associated with greater nutrient intake, reduced systolic blood pressure, lower body weight, and a smaller waist circumference in adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002. J Am Coll Nutr. 2008; 27(5): 569-76.
    The purpose of this study was to determine the association of consuming beans on nutrient intake and physiological parameters using the National Health and Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2002. Overall, bean consumers had better nutrient intake levels, better body weights and waist circumferences, and lower systolic blood pressure compared to non-consumers.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2010, Diabetes Insulin Resistance Metabolic Syndrome
    Beans and diabetes: Phaseolus vulgaris preparations as antihyperglycemic agents.
    Helmstadter, A. Beans and diabetes: Phaseolus vulgaris preparations as antihyperglycemic agents. J Med Food. 2010; 13(2): 251-4.
    This paper presents historical knowledge and recent studies regarding the use of bean pods as a remedy against diabetes mellitus.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2012, Glycemic Index
    Beans and rice meals reduce postprandial glycemic response in adults with type 2: a cross-over study.
    Thompson, SV, Winham, DM, Hutchins, AM. Beans and rice meals reduce postprandial glycemic response in adults with type 2: a cross-over study. Nutr J. 2012; 11:23.
    The study evaluated the glycemic response of bean and rice traditional meals compared to rice alone in adults with type 2 diabetes. The results demonstrate that postprandial glucose levels were significantly lower for the bean/rice treatments in contrast to the control at 90, 120 and 150 minutes. The researchers conclude that pinto, dark red kidney and black beans with rice attenuate the glycemic response of the meal compared to rice alone.
    PubMed Abstract
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  • 2017, Weight Management
    Beneficial effects of common bean on adiposity and lipid metabolism
    Henry J. Thompson, John N. McGinley, Elizabeth S. Neil, and Mark A. Brick. Beneficial Effects of Common Bean on Adiposity and Lipid Metabolism Nutrients. 2017; 9, 998.
    In developed countries which are at the epicenter of the obesity pandemic, pulse crop consumption is well below recommended levels. In a recent systematic review and meta-analysis of 21 randomized controlled clinical trials, pulse consumption was associated with improved weight control and reduced adiposity, although the underlying mechanisms were a matter of speculation. Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the most widely consumed pulse crop and was the focus of this investigation. Using outbred genetic models of dietary induced obesity resistance and of dietary induced obesity sensitivity in the rat, the impact of bean consumption was investigated on the efficiency with which consumed food was converted to body mass (food efficiency ratio), body fat accumulation, adipocyte morphometrics, and patterns of protein expression associated with lipid metabolism. Cooked whole bean as well as a commercially prepared cooked bean powders were evaluated. While bean consumption did not affect food efficiency ratio, bean reduced visceral adiposity and adipocyte size in both obesity sensitive and resistant rats. In liver, bean consumption increased carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1, which is the rate limiting step in long chain fatty acid oxidation and also resulted in lower levels of circulating triglycerides. Collectively, our results are consistent with the clinical finding that pulse consumption is anti-obesogenic and indicate that one mechanism by which cooked bean exerts its bioactivity is oxidation of long chain fatty acids
    PubMed Abstract
    Full Article
  • 2017, Nutritional Composition
    Bioactive constituents in pulses and their health benefits.
    Singh, B, Singh, JP, Shevkani, K, Singh, N, Kaur, A. Bioactive constituents in pulses and their health benefits. J Food Sci Technol. 2017; 54(4): 858-870.
    This review paper shares current information on pulse polyphenols, phytosterols, resistant starch, dietary fiber, oligosaccharides, antioxidant and associated health benefits
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2017, Gut Health Probiotics
    Black Adzuki bean (Vigna angularis) attenuates high-fat diet-induced colon inflammation in mice.
    Yook, JS, Kim, KA, Kim, M, Cha, YS. Black Adzuki bean (Vigna angularis) attenuates high-fat diet-induced colon inflammation in mice. J Med Food. 2017; 20(4): 367-375.
    This study investigated the effects of black adzuki beans (BAB) on colon inflammation triggered by high-fat diet (HD)-induced obesity in mice. The findings indicated that BAB improves HD-induced disorders such as obesity and colitis by improving mucosal barrier protection and reducing endotoxemia, as well as by inactivating HF-KB to decrease the production of proinflammatory cytokines.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2017, Diabetes Insulin Resistance Metabolic Syndrome
    Black bean anthocyanin-rich extracts as food colorants: Physicochemical stability and antidiabetes potential.
    Mojica L, Berhow M, Gonzalez de Mejia E. Black bean anthocyanin-rich extracts as food colorants: Physicochemical stability and antidiabetes potential. Food Chemistry. 2017; 229:628-639.
    Black beans contain anthocyanins that could be used as colorants in foods with associated health benefits. The objective was to optimize anthocyanins extraction from black bean coats and evaluate their physicochemical stability and antidiabetes potential. Optimal extraction conditions were 24% ethanol, 1:40 solid-to-liquid ratio and 29°C (P<0.0001). Three anthocyanins were identified by MS ions, delphinidin-3-O-glucoside (465.1m/z), petunidin-3-O-glucoside (479.1m/z) and malvidin-3-O-glucoside (493.1m/z). A total of 32mg of anthocyanins were quantified per gram of dry extract. Bean anthocyanins were stable at pH 2.5 and low-temperature 4°C (89.6%), with an extrapolated half-life of 277days. Anthocyanin-rich extracts inhibited α-glucosidase (37.8%), α-amylase (35.6%), dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (34.4%), reactive oxygen species (81.6%), and decreased glucose uptake. Black bean coats are a good source of anthocyanins and other phenolics with the potential to be used as natural-source food colorants with exceptional antidiabetes potential.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2015, Diabetes Insulin Resistance Metabolic Syndrome, Overall Nutrition Health Benefits
    Black beans, fiber, and antioxidant capacity pilot study: examination of whole foods vs. functional components on postprandial metabolic, oxidative stress, and inflammation in adults with metabolic syndrome.
    Reverri, EJ, Randolph, JM, Steinberg, FM, Kappagoda, CT, Edirisinghe, I, Burton-Freeman, BM. Black beans, fiber, and antioxidant capacity pilot study: examination of whole foods vs. functional components on postprandial metabolic, oxidative stress, and inflammation in adults with metabolic syndrome. Nutrients. 2015; 7(8): 6139-54.
    PubMed Abstract
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  • 2015, Diabetes Insulin Resistance Metabolic Syndrome
    Caned navy bean consumption reduces metabolic risk factors associated with obesity.
    Luhovyy, BL, Mollard, RC, Panahi, S, Nunez, MF, Cho, F, Anderson, GH. Caned navy bean consumption reduces metabolic risk factors associated with obesity. Can J Diet Pract Res. 2015; 76(1): 33-7.
    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of commercially available ready-to-eat canned navy beans added to the habitual diet on risk factors associated with obesity. The study results demonstrate that consuming 5 cups of ready-to-eat canned navy beans per week for 4 weeks reduces metabolic risk factors associated with obesity.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2010, Cancer
    Characterisation of a haemagglutinin from Hokkaido red bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Hokkaido red bean).
    Wong, JH, Wan, CT, Ng, TB. Characterisation of a haemagglutinin from Hokkaido red bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Hokkaido red bean). J Sci Food Agric. 2010; 90(1): 70-7.
    Haemagglutinin was purified from Japanese Hokkaido red beans and its stability was analyzed. The haemagglutinin exhibited a strong anti-proliferative effect on HepG2 cells.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2018, Aging Longevity
    Characteristic glycopeptides associated with extreme human longevity identified through plasma glycoproteomics.
    Miura Y, Hashii N, Ohta Y, Itakura Y, Tsumoto H, Suzuki J, Takakura D, Abe Y, Arai Y, Toyoda M, Kawasaki N, Hirose N, Endo T. Characteristic glycopeptides associated with extreme human longevity identified through plasma glycoproteomics Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj.. 2018; 1462-1471.
    Glycosylation is highly susceptible to changes of the physiological conditions, and accordingly, is a potential biomarker associated with several diseases and/or longevity. Semi-supercentenarians (SSCs; older than 105 years) are thought to be a model of human longevity. Thus, we performed glycoproteomics using plasma samples of SSCs, and identified proteins and conjugated N-glycans that are characteristic of extreme human longevity.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2019, Overall Nutrition Health Benefits
    Characteristics of flavonol glycosides in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seed coats.
    Pitura K, Arntfield SD. Characteristics of flavonol glycosides in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seed coats. Food Chem. 2019; doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.07.220. [Epub ahead of print].
    Seed coats of coloured dry beans contain biologically active compounds. Flavonol glycosides were identified from acetone extracts of seed coats of black beans, pinto beans, and red kidney beans and evaluated for antioxidant activity. High Performance Liquid Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry/Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging capacity were used to measure flavonols and antioxidant capacity, respectively. The main flavonol glycosides in black beans were the 3-O-glycosides of kaempferol, quercetin and myricetin; pinto beans contained kaempferol 3-O-glycosides, while red kidney beans contained quercetin 3-O-glycoside and quercetin 3-O-rutinoside (rutin). A flavonol triglycoside was identified in dark red kidney bean. Despite differences in total flavonol content, extracts from Eclipse, (black bean) and Windbreaker (pinto bean) had the significantly higher antioxidant activities than other bean seed coats. Results suggest seed coats of Windbreaker and Eclipse may have potential as functional food ingredients, though benefits may not be simply due to flavonols.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2015, Nutritional Composition
    Characterization and comparison of protein and peptide profiles and their biological activities of improved common bean cultivars (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) from Mexico and Brazil.
    . Characterization and comparison of protein and peptide profiles and their biological activities of improved common bean cultivars (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) from Mexico and Brazil. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2015; 70(2): 105-12.
    The objective of this study was to compare protein profiles, including anti-nutrient proteins, and potential bioactive peptides of 15 improved bean cultivars grown in Mexico and Brazil. The paper summarizes the findings, and discusses the potential biological role of peptides to control hypertension and type-2 diabetes.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2019, Nutritional Composition
    Characterization of Soaking Process' Impact in Common Beans Phenolic Composition: Contribute from the Unexplored Portuguese Germplasm.
    Mecha E, Leitão ST, Carbas B, Serra AT, Moreira PM, Veloso MM, Gomes R, Figueira ME, Brites C, Vaz Patto MC, Bronze MR. Characterization of Soaking Process' Impact in Common Beans Phenolic Composition: Contribute from the Unexplored Portuguese Germplasm. Foods. 2019; 8(8), 296.
    Despite the common beans' nutritional and phytochemical value, in Portugal its consumption decreased more than 50% in the last decade. The present study aimed to characterize phenolic composition of the Portuguese traditional varieties and corresponding soaked seed fractions (including soaking water). With such purpose, the phenolic composition (total content of soluble phenolics, flavonoids, and proanthocyanidins) and in vitro antioxidant activity were evaluated in the raw whole flour of 31 Portuguese common bean varieties. The phenolic composition of the soaked fractions was respectively compared to the raw flour. Phenolic compounds' identification and relative quantification were achieved by UPLC-TripleTOF-MS for one representative variety and their fractions. The highest phenolic content was found in colored varieties and the brown market class highlighted as the richest one. The loss of phenolic compounds to the soaking water was highly dependent on variety. The predominant phenolic compounds' classes were flavan-3-ols (soaking water and coats), flavonols (coats), and phenolic acids (cotyledons). This characterization study showed the diversity on the phenolic composition of Portuguese varieties and the need to adjust the soaking and peeling processes to the variety (considering the possible loss of potential health promoter compounds, e.g., phenolic compounds).
    PubMed Abstract
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  • 2016, Diabetes Insulin Resistance Metabolic Syndrome
    Characterizations of peptides from common bean protein isolates and their potential to inhibit markers of type-2 diabetes, hypertension and oxidative stress.
    Luis Mojica Diego A Luna‐Vital Elvira González de Mejía. Characterizations of peptides from common bean protein isolates and their potential to inhibit markers of type-2 diabetes, hypertension and oxidative stress. J Sci Food Agric. 2016; doi: 10.1002/jsfa.8053. [Epub ahead of print].
    The aim of this study was isolate peptides (chains of amino acids, the building blocks of proteins) from common bean protein isolates to determine if they may inhibit certain markers of type-2 diabetes, hypertension and stress. The researchers found that peptides from common beans have certain antidiabetic and antihypertensive potential due to their antioxidant capacity.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2017, Gut Health Probiotics
    Characterizing the gut (Gallus gallus) microbiota following the consumption of an iron biofortified Rwandan cream seeded carioca (Phaseolus Vulgaris L.) bean-based diet.
    Reed S, Neuman H, Glahn R1, Koren O, Tako E. Characterizing the gut (Gallus gallus) microbiota following the consumption of an iron biofortified Rwandan cream seeded carioca (Phaseolus Vulgaris L.) bean-based diet. PLOS|ONE. 2017; .
    Biofortification is a plant breeding method that introduces increased concentrations of minerals in staple food crops and has shown success in alleviating insufficient Fe intake in various human populations. In this study, we performed a 6-week feeding trial in Gallus gallus (n = 14), aimed to investigate the alterations in the gut microbiome following administration of an Fe biofortified bean-based diet (biofortified, BFe) versus a bean based diet with poorly-bioavailable Fe (standard, SFe). The primary outcomes were changes in the gut microbiome composition and function analyzed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We observed no significant changes in phylogenetic diversity between groups. There were significant differences in the composition of the microbiota between groups, with the BFe group harboring fewer taxa participating in bacterial Fe uptake, increased abundance of bacteria involved in phenolic catabolism, and increased abundance of beneficial butyrate-producing bacteria. Additionally, depletion of key bacterial pathways responsible for bacterial viability and Fe uptake suggest that improvements in Fe bioavailability, in addition to increases in Fe-polyphenol and Fe-phytate complexes due to biofortification, led to decreased concentrations of cecal Fe available for bacterial utilization. Our findings demonstrate that Fe biofortification may improve Fe status without negatively altering the structure and function of the gut microbiota, as is observed with other nutritional methods of Fe supplementation. These results may be used to further improve the efficacy and safety of future biofortification efforts in eradicating global Fe deficiency.
    PubMed Abstract
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  • 2009, Gut Health Probiotics
    Chemical composition and in vitro polysaccharide fermentation of different beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).
    Campos-Vega, R et al. Chemical composition and in vitro polysaccharide fermentation of different beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). J Food Sci. 2009; 74(7): T59-65.
    The study evaluated the composition of bioactive compounds in 4 raw and cooked beans, and their fermentation ability with human gut flora. The results suggest that the common bean is an excellent source of polysaccharides that can be fermented in the colon and produce short-chain fatty acids.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2012, Other
    Chemical composition, starch digestibility and antioxidant capacity of tortilla made with a blend of quality protein maize and black bean.
    Grajales-Garcia, EM. Osorio-Diaz, P, Goni, I, Hervert-Hernandez, D, Guzman-Maldonado, SH, Bello-Perez, LA. Chemical composition, starch digestibility and antioxidant capacity of tortilla made with a blend of quality protein maize and black bean. Int J Mol Sci. 2012; 13(1): 286-301.
    The objective of this study was to prepare tortilla with bean and assess the chemical composition, starch digestibility and antioxidant capacity using a quality protein maize variety. Tortilla made with beans had higher protein, ash, dietary fiber, and resistant starch content, and lower digestible starch than control tortilla. The researchers conclude that the addition of beans to the tortilla modified the starch digestibility and antioxidant characteristics of the tortilla, obtaining a product with nutraceutical characteristics.
    PubMed Abstract
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  • 2014, Heart Health
    Combining functional features of whole-grain barley and legumes for dietary reduction of cardiometabolic risk: a randomized cross-over intervention in mature women.
    Tovar, J, Nilsson, A, Johansson, M, Bjorck, I. Combining functional features of whole-grain barley and legumes for dietary reduction of cardiometabolic risk: a randomized cross-over intervention in mature women. Br J Nutr. 2014; 111(4): 706-14.
    The purpose of this study was to assess, in healthy subjects, the effect of a whole-grain barley and legumes-rich diet with prior favorable outcomes on cardiometabolic risk parameters. This randomized, crossover intervention trial compared a barley, brown beans and chickpeas-rich diet (functional diet) to a control diet in forty-six (46) overweight women. The researchers conclude that the functional diet improved cardiometabolic risk-associated biomarkers.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2013, Cancer
    Common beans and their non-digestible fraction: Cancer inhibitory activity _ an overview.
    Campos-Vega, R, Oomah, BD, Loarca-Pina, G, Vergara-Castaneda, HA. Common beans and their non-digestible fraction: Cancer inhibitory activity _ an overview. Foods. 2013; 2(3): 374-392.
    Evidence indicates that consumption of common beans is associated with a reduced risk of cancer in human populations. This review investigates the potential health benefits and bioactivity of beans on tumor inhibition, highlighting studies involving functional compounds, mainly non-digestible fractions that modulate genes and proteins.
    PubMed Abstract
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  • 2007, Heart Health
    Comparative studies on the antioxidant activities of nine common food legumes against copper=induced human low-density lipoprotein oxidation in vitro.
    Xu, BJ, Yuan, SH, Chang, SK. Comparative studies on the antioxidant activities of nine common food legumes against copper=induced human low-density lipoprotein oxidation in vitro. J Food Sci. 2007; 72(7): S522-7.
    The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activities of the hydrophilic extracts from 9 selected legumes based on copper-induced human LDL oxidation model in vitro. The results showed that the extracts of black beans, lentils, black soybeans, and red kidney beans had significantly longer LDL oxidation lag times, and black beans, lentils, black soybeans, red kidney beans, and pinto beans exhibited higher antioxidant capacities. The researchers conclude that consuming black beans, lentils, black soybeans, and red kidney beans may have potential in reducing the risk of developing atherosclerosis from the perspective of inhibiting LDL oxidation.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2011, Nutritional Composition
    Comparison of nutrient density and nutrient to cost between cooked and canned beans.
    . Comparison of nutrient density and nutrient to cost between cooked and canned beans. Food Nutr Sci. 2011; 2(2): 66-73.
    The purpose of this study was to compare the nutrient density and nutrient-to-cost ratio among dried cooked, canned (liquid and solids), and canned/drained black, garbanzo, kidney, lima, pinto, white beans, and black-eyed peas. Compared to canned beans, dried cooked beans were significantly more energy dense, contained more protein, fiber, iron, potassium, and magnesium, and less sodium. The researchers highlight the benefits of choosing dried beans, but suggest that beans, regardless of type/form, are a nutrient rich food that should be encouraged as part of an overall healthy diet.
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  • 2019, Overall Nutrition Health Benefits
    Comparison of the Effects of Roasted and Boiled Red Kidney Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) on Glucose/Lipid Metabolism and Intestinal Immunity in a High-Fat Diet-Induced Murine Obesity Model.
    Tanaka M, Honda Y, Miwa S, Akahori R, Matsumoto K . Comparison of the Effects of Roasted and Boiled Red Kidney Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) on Glucose/Lipid Metabolism and Intestinal Immunity in a High-Fat Diet-Induced Murine Obesity Model. J Food Sci. 2019; 84(5):1180-1187.
    Consumption of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is associated with beneficial effects on lipid and glucose metabolism; however, the influence of the bean processing method on these health benefits is not well understood. To investigate this, we processed red kidney beans (RKBs), a variety of the common bean, by roasting and boiling and compared the physiological effects of the two preparations in male C57BL/6N mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). The two RKB preparations differed mainly in their resistant starch content (roasted, 24.5%; boiled, 3.1%). Four groups of mice were fed for 12 weeks on a normal diet or a HFD (45 kcal% fat) supplemented with 10% control chow (HFD control group), 10% roasted RKB, or 10% freeze-dried boiled RKB. We found that intake of roasted RKBs prevented hypercholesterolemia and increased fecal IgA and mucin content compared with the HFD control group, while intake of boiled RKBs improved glucose tolerance. Both RKB preparations suppressed the HFD-associated increase in plasma aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels, which are markers of liver injury. Mice fed roasted RKBs showed significantly increased hepatic expression of cholesterol 7-alpha-monooxygenase mRNA, suggesting that cholesterol suppression may be due to enhanced bile acid biosynthesis. In contrast, mice fed boiled RKBs showed significantly increased cecal content of n-butyric acid, which may be related to the improved glucose tolerance in this group. These results indicate that the method by which RKBs are processed can profoundly affect their health benefits.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2008, Colon Colorectal Cancer
    Composition and chemopreventive effect of polysaccharides from common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) on azoxymethane-induced colon cancer.
    Feregrino-Perez, AA et al. Composition and chemopreventive effect of polysaccharides from common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) on azoxymethane-induced colon cancer. J Agric Food Chem. 2008; 56(18): 8737-44.
    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the composition and chemopreventive effect of a polysaccharide extract (PE) from cooked common beans on azoxymethane (AOM) induced colon cancer in rats. The results suggest that PE decreased aerrant crypt foci and had an influence on the expression of genes involved in colon cancer for the action of butyrate concentration.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2010, Glycemic Index
    Consumption of a legume-enriched, low-glycemic index diet is associated with biomarkers of insulin resistance and inflammation among men at risk for colorectal cancer.
    Hartman, TJ et al. Consumption of a legume-enriched, low-glycemic index diet is associated with biomarkers of insulin resistance and inflammation among men at risk for colorectal cancer. J Nutr. 2010; 140(1): 60-7.
    This study was designed to test the effects of a legume-enriched diet compared with a healthy American (HA) diet, and to assess effects on C-reactive protein (CRP) and C-peptide levels, as well as assess changes in insulin resistance (IR) status or history of adenomas. While there was some variability between the two diets, both resulted in improved biomarkers of IR and inflammation, and researchers conclude that healthful dietary changes improve markers of health.
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  • 2009, Overall Nutrition Health Benefits
    Consumption of dry beans, peas, and lentils could improve diet quality in the US population.
    Mitchell, DC, Lawrence, FR, Hartman, TJ, Curran, JM. Consumption of dry beans, peas, and lentils could improve diet quality in the US population. J Am Diet Assoc. 2009; 109(5): 909-13.
    The purpose of this study was to assess nutrient and food group intakes of dry bean and pea consumers compared to non-consumers. Consuming approximately _ cup dry beans or peas resulted in higher intakes of fiber, protein, folate, zinc, iron, magnesium with lower intakes of saturated fat and total fat. The researchers suggest that this data supports the specific recommendation for dry beans and peas as part of the overall vegetable recommendation, and increase consumption could improve the diet quality of Americans.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2015, Diabetes Insulin Resistance Metabolic Syndrome
    Cooked common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) modulate renal genes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.
    . Cooked common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) modulate renal genes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Nutr Biochem. 2015; 26(7): 761-8.
    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of cooked common beans on differentially expressed genes in whole kidney homogenates of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The results suggest that the consumption of cooked common beans may be used as an alternative for the regulation of genes related to renal alterations.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2013, Diabetes Insulin Resistance Metabolic Syndrome
    Cooked common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) protect against _-cell damage in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.
    . Cooked common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) protect against _-cell damage in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2013; 68(2): 207-12.
    The effectiveness of a dietary supplement made of 25% cooked black bean flour (cultiv Negro) was evaluated in diabetes-induced rats. The effect was compared before and after the onset of diabetes. The treatment group showed a significant reduction in glucose, triglycerides, total and LDL cholesterol. The results of this study suggest that a bean flour supplement may be recommended to control diabetes.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2014, Gut Health Probiotics
    Cooked navy and black bean diets improve biomarkers of colon health and reduce inflammation during colitis.
    Zhang, C et al. Cooked navy and black bean diets improve biomarkers of colon health and reduce inflammation during colitis. Br J Nutr. 2014; 111(9) 1549-63.
    The purpose of this study was to assess the in vivo effect of cooked whole bean flours, with differing phenolic compound levels and profiles, in a mouse model of acute colitis. The bean containing diets exerted both beneficial and adverse effects during experimental colitis by reducing inflammatory biomarkers, but also aggravating colonic mucosal damage.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2018, Cancer
    Cytotoxic Activity of a Black Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Extract and its Flavonoid Fraction in Both In Vitro and In Vivo Models of Lymphoma.
    Aregueta-Robles U, Fajardo-Ramírez OR, Villela L, Gutiérrez-Uribe JA, Hernández-Hernández J, López-Sánchez RDC, Scott SP, Serna-Saldívar S.. Cytotoxic Activity of a Black Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Extract and its Flavonoid Fraction in Both In Vitro and In Vivo Models of Lymphoma. Revista De Investigación Clínica. 2018; 70(1):32-39.
    Black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is a very common legume seed in Mexican diet. Flavonoids and crude extracts from different plants have been reported as effective agents for chemoprevention and cytotoxicity in several cancer cell lines. We investigated the effects of black bean hulls extract (BBE) and its flavonoid fraction (FF) on lymphoma cells
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2013, Other
    Daily non-soy legume consumption reverses vascular impairment due to peripheral artery disease.
    Zahradka, P, Wright, B, Weighell, W, Blewett, H, Baldwin, A, O K, Guzman RP, Taylor, CG. Daily non-soy legume consumption reverses vascular impairment due to peripheral artery disease. Atherosclersis. 2013; 230(2): 310-4.
    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of consuming whole legumes (non-soy) on arterial function in humans with peripheral artery disease. Data suggests that a legume-rich diet can elicit major improvements in arterial function and serum cholesterol in the absence of changes in either body mass or blood pressure.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2017, Gut Health Probiotics
    Dairy propionibacteria prevent the proliferative effect of plant lectins on SW480 cells and protect the metabolic activity of the intestinal microbiota in vitro.
    Zarate, G, Saez, GD, Perez Chaia, A. Dairy propionibacteria prevent the proliferative effect of plant lectins on SW480 cells and protect the metabolic activity of the intestinal microbiota in vitro. Anaerobe. 2017; 44: 58-65.
    This study assessed in vitro the effects of two plant lectins (carbohydrate-binding proteins found widespread in legumes) on the proliferation of SW480 colonic adenocarcinoma cells and metabolic activity of colonic microbiota in the absence or presence of Propionibacterium acidipropionici CRL 1198. The results suggest that consumption of propionibacteria at the same time as lectins could reduce the incidence of lectin-induced alterations in the gut and may be a tool to protect intestinal health.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2016, Nutritional Composition
    Demonstrating a nutritional advantage to the fast-cooking dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).
    Wiesinger, JA, Cichy, KA, Glahn, RP, Grusak, MA, Brick, MA, Thompson, HJ, Tako, E. Demonstrating a nutritional advantage to the fast-cooking dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). J Agric Food Chem. 2016; 16(64): 8592-8603.
    This study evaluated the nutritive value of 12 dry edible beans that vary for cooking time (20-89 min) from four market classes (yellow, cranberry, light red kidney, and red mottled). The results suggest that fast-cooking bean varieties have improved nutritive value through greater nutrient retention and improved iron bioavailability.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2017, Nutritional Composition
    Determination of fourteen polyphenols in pulses by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) and correlation study with antioxidant activity and colour.
    Giusti, F, Gaprioli, G, Ricciutelli, M, Vittori, S, Sagratini, G. Determination of fourteen polyphenols in pulses by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) and correlation study with antioxidant activity and colour. Food Chem. 2017; 15(221): 689-697.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2008, Cancer
    Diet and cancer in Northeast Brazil: evaluation of eating habits and food group consumption in relation to breast cancer.
    Lima, FE, Latorre Mdo, R, Costa, MJ, Fisberg, RM. Diet and cancer in Northeast Brazil: evaluation of eating habits and food group consumption in relation to breast cancer. Cad Saude Publica. 2008; 24(4): 820-8.
    This case control study looked at 89 women with confirmed breast cancer cases compared to 94 controls. The food consumption records of cases and controls were evaluated by food and food group, and intakes of fruits and juices, beans and dairy products showed a strong association with a reduced risk of breast cancer.
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  • 2013, Weight Management
    Dietary adherence and satisfaction with a bean-based high-fiber weight loss diet: a pilot study.
    . Dietary adherence and satisfaction with a bean-based high-fiber weight loss diet: a pilot study. ISRN Obes. 2013; doi: 10.1155/2013/915415.
    This study examined the nutritional effects and acceptability of two high-fiber hypocaloric diets differing in sources of fiber: beans, or fruits, vegetables and whole grains. Both diets significantly increased fiber intake by 75%, increased satiation, and reduced hunger. The results support increasing fiber in weight loss diets with a variety of fiber sources.
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  • 2008, Colon Colorectal Cancer
    Dietary cooked navy beans and their fractions attenuate colon carcinogenesis in azoxymethane-induced ob/ob mice.
    Bobe, G et al. Dietary cooked navy beans and their fractions attenuate colon carcinogenesis in azoxymethane-induced ob/ob mice. Nutr Cancer. 2008; 60(3): 373-81.
    This study examined which fraction of cooked navy beans is responsible for its reduced risk of cancer effect. Various bean fraction diets were fed to colon-cancer induced mice, and the results suggest that both the soluble and the insoluble fraction of the extract contribute to the cancer-protective effect of cooked navy beans.
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  • 2012, Other
    Dietary dry bean effects on hepatic expression of stress and toxicity-related genes in rats.
    Daniell, EL, Ryan, EP, Brick, MA, Thompson, HJ. Dietary dry bean effects on hepatic expression of stress and toxicity-related genes in rats. Br J Nutr. 2012; 108 (Suppl 1): S37-45.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2016, Nutritional Composition
    Dietary fiber analysis of four pulses using AOAC 2011.25: Impactions for human health.
    Chen, Y, McGee, R, Vandemark, G, Brick, M, Thompson, HJ. Dietary fiber analysis of four pulses using AOAC 2011.25: Impactions for human health. Nutrients. 2016; 8(12). pii: E829. doi: 10.3390/nu8120829.
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the fiber content of pulse crops in seed types used for commercial production. The researchers conclude that pulse crops are a significant source of fiber and should be emphasized in efforts to close the dietary fiber gap. Differences in fiber content among cultivars could be used to further improve fiber intake goals.
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  • 2008, Colon Colorectal Cancer
    Dietary flavonoids and colorectal adenoma recurrence in the Polyp Prevention Trial.
    Bobe, G et al. Dietary flavonoids and colorectal adenoma recurrence in the Polyp Prevention Trial. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008; 17(6): 1344053.
    This study utilized the U.S. Department of Agriculture flavonoid database to examine the association between consumption of total flavonoids, 6 flavonoid subgroups, and 29 individual flavonoids with adenomatous polyp recurrence in the Polyp Prevention Trial. Total flavonoid intake was not associated with any or advanced adenoma recurrence, but high intake of flavonols, which are at greater concentrations in beans, onions, apples, and tea, was associated with decreased risk of advanced adenoma recurrence
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  • 2017, Other
    Dietary guidance for pulses: the challenge and opportunity to be part of both the vegetable and protein food groups.
    Havemeier, S, Erickson, J, Slavin, J. Dietary guidance for pulses: the challenge and opportunity to be part of both the vegetable and protein food groups. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2017; 1392(1): 58-66.
    This paper discusses the challenge of categorizing beans as a vegetable and protein food, and the necessity of finding the best method of categorization to encourage consumption of this healthy, sustainable food source.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2017, Colon Colorectal Cancer
    Dietary Peptides from Phaseolus vulgaris L. Reduced AOM/DSS-induced Colitis-Associated Colon Carcinogenesis in Balb/c Mice.
    Luna-Vital DA, González de Mejía E, Loarca-Piña G. Dietary Peptides from Phaseolus vulgaris L. Reduced AOM/DSS-Induced Colitis-Associated Colon Carcinogenesis in Balb/c Mice. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition. 2017; Vol. 72(4) 445-447.
    The aim was to evaluate the antineoplastic potential of a previously characterized peptide extract from the non-digestible fraction of common bean cv. Azufrado Higuera (AH) and its most abundant pure peptide GLTSK, in an azoxymethane/dextran sodium sulfate (AOM/DSS)-induced colitis-associated colon carcinogenesis Balb/c mice model. The healthy control (C-) had no induction and no treatment, and the induced control (C+) had induction but no treatment. Groups AH and GLTSK were administered 50 mg/kg-bw of AH or GLTSK, respectively. The administration of AH and GLTSK decreased (p < 0.05) the disease activity index (DAI) compared to C+ (5.8, 9.1, 11.8, respectively). Furthermore, AH reduced the number of evident neoplasms compared to group C+ (1.8, 5.9 neoplasms/mice, respectively). The results suggest that peptides from common bean cv. Azufrado Higuera could prevent colitis-associated colon carcinogenesis.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2016, Colon Colorectal Cancer
    Dietary peptides from the non-digestible fraction of Phaseolus vulgaris L. decrease angiotensin II-dependent proliferation in HCT116 human colorectal cancer cells through the blockade of the renin-angiotensin system.
    Luna-Vital, DA, Liang, K, Gonazalez de Meijia, E, Loarca-Pina, G. Dietary peptides from the non-digestible fraction of Phaseolus vulgaris L. decrease angiotensin II-dependent proliferation in HCT116 human colorectal cancer cells through the blockade of the renin-angiotensin system. Food Funct. 2016; 7(5): 2409-19.
    This study looked at the ability of peptides present in the non-digestible fraction (NDF) of common beans to decrease angiotensin II through the blockade of RAS and its effect on the proliferation of HCT116 human colorectal cancer cells. The results suggest that these peptides could potentially improve the effects of RAS overexpression in colorectal cancer.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2014, Weight Management
    Dietary pulses, satiety and food intake: a systematic review and meta-analysis of acute feeding trials.
    Li, SS et al. Dietary pulses, satiety and food intake: a systematic review and meta-analysis of acute feeding trials. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2014; 22(8): 1773-80.
    This systematic review and meta-analysis assessed the effect of dietary pulses on acute satiety and second meal intake. Nine (9) trials met the eligibility criteria, and pool analyses show that dietary pulses contribute to acute satiety, but not second meal intake.
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  • 2017, Nutritional Composition
    Dietary sources of polyphenols in the Mediterranean Diet Eating, Aging and Lifestyle (MEAL) study cohort.
    Godos, J, Marventano, S, Mistretta, A, Galvano, F, Grosso, G. Dietary sources of polyphenols in the Mediterranean Diet Eating, Aging and Lifestyle (MEAL) study cohort. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2017; 1-7. doi: 10.1080/09637486.2017.1285870. [Epub ahead of print].
    The purpose of this study was to estimate the dietary intake and major food sources of polyphenols in the Mediterranean healthy Eating, Aging and Lifestyles (MEAL) study cohort. Beans were identified as a major dietary source of total polyenols.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2016, Gut Health Probiotics
    Diets enriched with cranberry beans alter the microbiota and mitigate colitis severity and associated inflammation.
    Monk, JM et al. Diets enriched with cranberry beans alter the microbiota and mitigate colitis severity and associated inflammation. J Nutr Biochem. 2016; 28: 129-39.
    This study assessed the gut health priming effect of a 20% cranberry bean flour diet from two bean varieties with differing phenolic compound profiles on critical aspects of gut health in unchallenged mice, and colitis induced mice. During colitis, beans reduced disease severity and colonic histological damage, increased gene expression of barrier function promoting genes, and reduced colonic and circulating inflammation cytokines. This ultimately resulted in reduced colitis severity. This data demonstrates the gut-priming potential of beans in colitis.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2012, Heart Health
    Edible dry bean consumption (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) modulates cardiovascular risk factors and diet-induced obesity in rats and mice.
    Zhu, Z, Jiang, W, Thompson, HJ. Edible dry bean consumption (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) modulates cardiovascular risk factors and diet-induced obesity in rats and mice. Br J Nutr. 2012; 108 (Suppl 1): S66-73.
    The objective of the present study was to identify mechanisms that account for the cardioprotective activity of dry beans. Sprague-Dawley rats and mice were used to assess the effect of cooked dry bean incorporated into a purified diet formulation on plasma lipids and hepatic proteins involved in the regulation of lipid biosynthesis. For both animal species, a short-term feeding of bean-containing diet reduced plasma total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol without affecting HDL-cholesterol or total TAG. The mechanisms associated with cholesterol catabolism and excretion are likely targets of the bean effect. The bean-fed obese mice also experienced weight loss, as well as an improved plasma lipid profile.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2013, Cancer
    Effect of cooking and germination on phenolic composition and biological properties of dark beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).
    Lopez, A et al. Effect of cooking and germination on phenolic composition and biological properties of dark beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Food Chem. 2013; 138(1): 547-55.
    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of processes (boiling or germination) on the phenolic composition of dark beans, and their effect on their antioxidant, neuroprotective, and anticancer ability. The study demonstrated that raw beans proved to be the most active in neuroprotective and antitumoral effects, and that phenolic composition is related to cooking process. Cooking beans improves its digestion and absorption at the intestinal level, while also maintaining its protective ability on oxidative process at the cellular level.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2013, Other
    Effect of dietary legumes on bone-specific gene expression in ovariectomized rats.
    Park, Y, Moon, HJ, Paik, DJ, Kim, DY. Effect of dietary legumes on bone-specific gene expression in ovariectomized rats. Nutr Res Pract. 2013; 7(3): 185-91.
    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the protective effects of bone mineral density (BMD) and the microarchitecture of a diet containing legumes are comparable. The results demonstrate that consumption of legumes has a beneficial effect on bone through the modulation of OPG and RANKL expression, and that legume consumption can help compensate for an estrogen-deficiency by reducing the risk of bone loss induced by ovarian hormone deficiency.
    PubMed Abstract
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  • 2014, Heart Health
    Effect of dietary pulse intake on established therapeutic lipid targets for cardiovascular risk reduction: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
    Ha, V et al. Effect of dietary pulse intake on established therapeutic lipid targets for cardiovascular risk reduction: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. CMAJ. 2014; 186(3): E252-62.
    This purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was to assess the effect of dietary pulse intake on established therapeutic lipid targets for cardiovascular risk reduction. Twenty-six (26) RCTs were identified for inclusion, and findings suggest that dietary pulse intake significantly reduces LDL cholesterol levels.
    PubMed Abstract
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  • 2014, Heart Health
    Effect of dietary pulses on blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled feeding trials.
    Jayalath, VH et al. Effect of dietary pulses on blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled feeding trials. A J Hypertens. 2014; 27(1): 56-64.
    This systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled feeding trials was conducted to quantify the effect of dietary pulse interventions on blood pressure (BP) and provide evidence for their inclusion in dietary guidelines. Eight (8) isocaloric trials were included in the analysis. The researchers conclude that dietary pulses significantly lowered BP in people with and without hypertension.
    PubMed Abstract
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  • 2018, Nutritional Composition
    Effect of extrusion on folic acid concentration and mineral element dialyzability in Great Northern beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).
    Gulati P, Rose DJ. Effect of extrusion on folic acid concentration and mineral element dialyzability in Great Northern beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Food Chem. 2018; 269:118-124.
    Great Northern beans (GNB) contain appreciable magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), phosphorus (P), and iron (Fe), together with the heat-labile vitamin, folate, and the anti-nutritional compound phytate. Thus, the objective was to increase dialyzability of essential mineral elements while degrading phytate and minimizing destruction of folate through extrusion of GNB. Extrusion resulted in significant (p < 0.05) increases in dialyzability of Mg, P, K, and Fe by as much as 50%, 30%, 5%, and 79%, respectively, while decreasing cadmium (Cd) dialyzability. Screw speed (SS) had a significant quadratic effect on dialyzability of all elements. Low MC resulted in a significant reduction (46%) in phytate, although this was accompanied by as much as 24% destruction of folate. In conclusion, low barrel temperature, medium MC and high SS were identified as the optimum conditions to maximize essential mineral element dialyzability and folate retention while minimizing phytate and dialyzable Cd.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2012, Glycemic Index
    Effect of legumes as part of a low glycemic index diet on glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized controlled trial.
    Jenkins, DJ, Kendall, CW, Augustin, LS, Mitchell, S, Sahye-Pudaruth, S, Blanco Mejia, S, et al. Effect of legumes as part of a low glycemic index diet on glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Intern Med. 2012; 172(21): 1653-60.
    This aim of this randomized-controlled trial was to determine the impact of low glycemic index (GI) foods in type 2 diabetes mellitus, with a focus on legumes. Patients were randomized to either a low-GI legume diet (patients encouraged to increase intake to at least 1 cup legumes per day) or to increase insoluble fiber by consuming whole-wheat products for 3 months. The researchers found that the incorporation of legumes as part of a low-GI diet improved glycemic control (measured by HbA1c_ and CHD risk score.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2009, Glycemic Index
    Effect of non-oil-seed pulses on glycaemic control: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled experimental trials in people with and without diabetes.
    Sievenpiper, JL et al. Effect of non-oil-seed pulses on glycaemic control: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled experimental trials in people with and without diabetes. Diabetologia. 2009; 52(8): 1479-95.
    This systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials investigated the effect of pulses, alone or as part of a low glycemic index (GI) or high-fiber diet, on markers of glycemic control in people with and without diabetes. A total of 41 trials were included. The analysis demonstrated that pulses, alone or in low-GI or high-fiber diets, improve markers of long term glycemic control in humans.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2008, Heart Health
    Effect of polyphenol-containing azuki bean (Vigna angularis) extract on blood pressure elevation and macrophage infiltration in the heart and kidney of spontaneously hypertensive rats.
    Sato, S, Mukai, Y, Yamate, J, Kato, J, Kurasaki, M, Hatai, A, Sagai, M. Effect of polyphenol-containing azuki bean (Vigna angularis) extract on blood pressure elevation and macrophage infiltration in the heart and kidney of spontaneously hypertensive rats. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2008; 35(1): 43-9.
    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of polyphenol-containing azuki bean extract (ABE) on systolic blood pressure (SBP) and macrophage infiltration in the heart and kidney of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). The results of the present study suggest that ABE attenuates the elevation of SBP and macrophage infiltration in the heart, as well as in the glomeruli and tubulointerstitium of the kidney.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2018, Overall Nutrition Health Benefits
    Effect of Traditional Household Processes on Iron, Zinc and Copper Bioaccessibility in Black Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).
    Feitosa S, Greiner R, Meinhardt AK, Müller A, Almeida DT, Posten C . Effect of Traditional Household Processes on Iron, Zinc and Copper Bioaccessibility in Black Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Foods (Basel, Switzerland). 2018; 7(8).
    Micronutrient deficiencies are a major public health problem. Beans are an important plant-based source of iron, zinc and copper, but their absorption is reduced in the presence of anti-nutrients such as phytates, polyphenols and tannins. Soaking and discarding the soaking water before cooking is unanimously recommended, but this can result in mineral loss. Data on the consequences for mineral bioaccessibility is still limited. This study aimed to evaluate iron, zinc and copper bioaccessibility in black beans cooked (regular pan, pressure cooker) with and without the soaking water. For that, three batches of black beans were investigated in triplicate, each split in nine parts (raw grains and four different household processes in duplicate) and analyzed by applying the quarter technique, resulting in a grand total of 164 samples. Minerals were quantified by ICP-MS (inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry), myo-inositol phosphates (InsP₅, InsP₆) by HPLC (high-performance liquid chromatography) ion-pair chromatography, total polyphenols using Folin-Denis reagent and condensed tannins using Vanillin assay. Mineral bioaccessibility was determined by in vitro digestion and dialysis. All treatments resulted in a statistically significant reduction of total polyphenols (30%) and condensed tannins (20%). Only when discarding the soaking water a loss of iron (6%) and copper (30%) was observed, and InsP₆ was slightly decreased (7%) in one treatment. The bioaccessibility of iron and zinc were low (about 0.2% iron and 35% zinc), but copper presented high bioaccessibility (about 70%). Cooking beans under pressure without discarding the soaking water resulted in the highest bioaccessibility levels among all household procedures. Discarding the soaking water before cooking did not improve the nutritional quality of the beans.
    PubMed Abstract
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  • 2013, Diabetes Insulin Resistance Metabolic Syndrome
    Effects of a brown beans evening meal on metabolic risk markers and appetite regulating hormones at a subsequent standardized breakfast: a randomized cross-over study.
    Nilsson, A, Johansson, E, Ekstrom, L, Bjorck, I. Effects of a brown beans evening meal on metabolic risk markers and appetite regulating hormones at a subsequent standardized breakfast: a randomized cross-over study. PLoS One. 2013; 8(4): e59985.
    PubMed Abstract
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  • 2015, Weight Management
    Effects of black adzuki bean (Vigna angularis, Geomguseul) extract on body composition and hypothalamic neuropeptide expression in rats fed a high-fat diet.
    Kim, M, Song, SB, Cha, YS. Effects of black adzuki bean (Vigna angularis, Geomguseul) extract on body composition and hypothalamic neuropeptide expression in rats fed a high-fat diet. Food Nutr Res. 2015; 21(59): 27719.
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of black adzuki bean (BAB) extract on body composition and hypothalamic neuropeptide expression in Sprague Dawley rats fed a high-fat diet. Body weights and epididymal fat were significantly reduced and serum lipid profiles were improved in the group fed the diet containing BAB compared to the control. The results suggest that supplementation with BAB has a significant effect on body weight via regulation of hypothalamic neuropeptides.
    PubMed Abstract
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  • 2016, Weight Management
    Effects of dietary pulse consumption on body weight: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
    Kim, SJ et al. Effects of dietary pulse consumption on body weight: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016; 103(5): 1213-23.
    This systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials summarizes and quantifies the effects of dietary pulse consumption on body weight, waist circumference, and body fat. Twenty-one (21) trials were included in the meta-analysis. The analysis concludes that including pulses in a diet may be a beneficial weight-loss strategy because it leads to a modest weight-loss effect even when diets are not intended to be calorically restricted.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2016, Diabetes Insulin Resistance Metabolic Syndrome
    Effects of legume-enriched diet on cardiometabolic risk factors among individuals at risk for diabetes: a crossover study.
    Saraf-Bank, S, Esmaillzadeh, A, Faghihimani, E, Azadbakht, L. Effects of legume-enriched diet on cardiometabolic risk factors among individuals at risk for diabetes: a crossover study. J Am Coll Nutr. 2016; 35(1): 31-40.
    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of consuming 4 servings of legumes per week on lipid profiles, glycemic indices, and blood pressure of participants with family history of diabetes over 6 weeks of intervention. The researchers found that consumption of 4 servings of legumes per week had no significant effect on anthropometric measurements, glycemic indices, and lipid profiles of participants with family history of diabetes, though it could reduce systolic and diastolic blood pressure at a marginally significant level.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2019, Weight Management
    Effects of Phaseolus vulgaris Extract on Lipolytic Activity and Differentiation of 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes into Mature Adipocytes: A Strategy to Prevent Obesity.
    Castillo F, González DR, Moore-Carrasco R. Effects of Phaseolus vulgaris Extract on Lipolytic Activity and Differentiation of 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes into Mature Adipocytes: A Strategy to Prevent Obesity. J Nutr Metab. 2019; doi: 10.1155/2019/5093654.
    Overweight and obesity are defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may be harmful for health. A global trend in this area is the search for natural compounds that have a proven beneficial effect and no clinical complications. Phaseolus vulgaris (bean) is a vegetable highly consumed worldwide. One of its effects, the most reported, is weight reduction in overweight individuals. The objective of this study was to investigate the antiobesity activity of this legume in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes and in rat white adipose tissue in an ex vivo model.
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  • 2017, Nutritional Composition
    Essential minerals and phytic acid in legumes with reference to their nutritive and medicinal properties.
    Ahmed S, Zafar Mahmood SB, Hasan MM, Mahmood ZA. Essential minerals and phytic acid in legumes with reference to their nutritive and medicinal properties. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2017; 30(5):1733-1742.
    Three commonly used legumes, Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc., Phaseolus lunatus Linn., and Phaseolus vulgaris Linn., were subjected to determine their minerals and phytic acid contents to correlate their nutritional and medicinal properties. To quantify essential minerals, atomic absorption spectroscopic method, while for phytic acid estimation, spectrophotometric method was used. Presence of Fe, Mg, Mn, P and Zn were recorded in good quantities, Ca and Cu in moderate, while K in small quantity in the seed flours of all the three tested legumes. Maximum Fe and Zn content (0.38 and 0.40 mg/g) were recorded in P. vulgaris, while M. uniflorum delivered high content of Mg, Mn, P and Ca (0.21, 0.20, 77.94 and 0.04 mg/g) and 0.04 mg/g Cu was recorded in P. lunatus. The highest level of phytic acid (37.00 mg/g) was recorded in M. uniflorum at 519 nm. The estimated quantities of minerals and phytic acid provide a good opportunity to draw a conclusion that all the three tested legumes could potentially be used as food to achieve nutritional and health related functional benefits
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2016, Aging Longevity
    Estimated dietary intake and major food sources of polyphenols in elderly of Vicosa, Brazil: a population-based study.
    Nascimento-Souza, MA, de Paiva, PG, Perez-Jimenez, J, do Carmo Castro Franceschini, S, Ribeiro, AQ. Estimated dietary intake and major food sources of polyphenols in elderly of Vicosa, Brazil: a population-based study. Eur J Nutr. 2016; DOI: 10.1007/s00394-016-1348-0.
    The aim of this study was to estimate the dietary intake and major food sources of polyphenols in elderly people in Vicosa, Brazil. Beans were found to be one of the main dietary contributors of polyphenols.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2017, Heart Health
    Etiologic effects and optimal intakes of food and nutrients for risk of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes: Systematic reviews and meta-analyses from the Nutrition and Chronic Diseases Expert Group (NutriCoDE).
    Micha, R et al. Etiologic effects and optimal intakes of food and nutrients for risk of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes: Systematic reviews and meta-analyses from the Nutrition and Chronic Diseases Expert Group (NutriCoDE). PLoS One. 2017; 12(4): e0175149.
    This systematic review provides a comprehensive summary of causal evidence, quantitative etiologic effects, heterogeneity, and optimal intakes of major dietary factors for cardiometabolic diseases. The researchers identified 10 foods and 7 nutrients with evidence for causal cardiometabolic effects, including a protective effect from bean consumption.
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  • 2013, Cancer
    Evaluation of adhesion force and binding affinity of phytohemagglutinin erythroagglutinating to EGF receptor on human lung cancer cells.
    Kuo, WT, Dong, GC, Yao, CH, Huang, JY, Lin, FH. Evaluation of adhesion force and binding affinity of phytohemagglutinin erythroagglutinating to EGF receptor on human lung cancer cells. Curr Med Chem. 2013; 20(19): 2476-85.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2013, Cancer
    Evaluation of the antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of extracted saponins and flavonols from germinated black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).
    Guajardo-Flores, D, Serna-Saldivar, SO, Gutierrez-Uribe, JA. Evaluation of the antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of extracted saponins and flavonols from germinated black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Food Chem. 2013; 141(2): 1497-503.
    This research evaluated the effect of germination of black beans on the antioxidant capacity and antiproliferative activity against cancer cell lines of saponins and flavonoids extracted from seed coats, cotyledons and sprouts.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2014, Colon Colorectal Cancer
    Feasibility of increased navy bean powder consumption for primary and secondary colorectal cancer prevention.
    Borresen, EC, Gundlach, KA, Wdowik, M, Rao, S, Brown, RJ, Ryan, EP. Feasibility of increased navy bean powder consumption for primary and secondary colorectal cancer prevention. Curr Nutr Food Sci. 2014; 10(2): 112-119.
    The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of increased navy bean consumption in adults with and without history of colorectal cancer (CRC) to achieve intake amounts associated with chemoprevention. The addition of 35g of cooked navy bean powder (5-8% of daily caloric intake) resulted in increased total fiber intake and allowed participants to consume levels associated with CRC chemoprevention outcomes.
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  • 2018, Weight Management
    Fecal fermentation products of common bean-derived fiber inhibit C/EBPα and PPARγ expression and lipid accumulation but stimulate PPARδ and UCP2 expression in the adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells.
    Lu HY, Zeng H, Zhang L, Porres JM, Cheng WH. Fecal fermentation products of common bean-derived fiber inhibit C/EBPα and PPARγ expression and lipid accumulation but stimulate PPARδ and UCP2 expression in the adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells. J Nutr Biochem. 2018; 60:9-15.
    Clinical and animal studies have suggested efficacies of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) consumption on weight loss. Fermentation of common bean-derived dietary fiber by gut microbiota is proposed to mitigate obesity; however, the mechanism of action is unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate whether and how fecal fermentation of common bean-derived dietary fiber impacts adipogenesis in a cell model. Dietary fiber was generated by in vitro digestion of cooked, lyophilized common bean flour, followed by anaerobic fermentation with the use of fresh feces from healthy mice without antibiotics treatment. The murine 3T3-L1 cells were induced to differentiate in the presence of the fermentation products. Treatment of the fecal fermentation products inhibited adipocyte differentiation and lipid accumulation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The fermentation products decreased (P<.05) protein levels of two key transcription factors for adipogenesis, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ by 79-92% and 78-90%, respectively, and one of their downstream targets fatty acid binding protein 4 by 49-86% and 63-98% at protein and mRNA levels, respectively, during the time course. In contrast, the fermentation products increased (P<.05) levels of two proteins promoting energy expenditure, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (71-91%) on days 2 and 4 and mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 (1.1-1.2 fold) on days 4-8. Altogether, fecal fermentation of dietary fiber derived from in vitro digestion of common bean temporally and dose-dependently inhibits adipogenesis and key adipogenic transactivators, but activates two energy expenditure proteins in 3T3-L1 cells.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2014, Heart Health
    Flavonoids and saponins extracted from black bean (Phaseolus vulgar L.) seed coats modulate lipid metabolism and biliary cholesterol secretion in C57BL/6 mice.
    Chavez-Santoscoy, RA et al. Flavonoids and saponins extracted from black bean (Phaseolus vulgar L.) seed coats modulate lipid metabolism and biliary cholesterol secretion in C57BL/6 mice. Br J Nutr. 2014; 112(6): 886-99.
    The aim of this study was to identify and quantify primary saponins and flavonoids extracted from black bean seed coats, and to study their effects on lipid metabolism in primary rat hepatocytes and C57BL/6 mice. The results suggest that the extract of black bean seed coats may decrease hepatic lipogenesis and stimulate cholesterol excretion, in part, via bile acid synthesis.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2017, Gut Health Probiotics
    Food combination based on a pre-hispanic Mexican diet decreases metabolic and cognitive abnormalities and gut microbiota dysbiosis caused by a sucrose-enriched high fat diet in rats.
    Avila-Nava, A, Noriega, LG, Tovar, AR, Granados, O, Perez-Cruz, C, Pedraza-Chaverri, J, Torres, N. Food combination based on a pre-hispanic Mexican diet decreases metabolic and cognitive abnormalities and gut microbiota dysbiosis caused by a sucrose-enriched high fat diet in rats. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2017; 61(1): doi: 10.1002/mnfr.201501023.
    This study examined the effect of a pre-Hispanic Mexican diet (PMD), which contains corn, beans, tomatoes, nopal, chia and pumpkin seeds, in rats. Consumption of a PMD decreased the glucose tolerance and the biochemical abnormalities caused by the obesity by increasing the abundance of proteins involved in fatty acid oxidation, decreasing the oxidative stress and modifying the gut microbiota.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2018, Heart Health
    Food groups and intermediate disease markers: a systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomized trials.
    Schwingshackl L, Hoffmann G, Iqbal K, Schwedhelm C, Boeing H.. Food groups and intermediate disease markers: a systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomized trials. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition . 2018; 576-586.
    Literature searches were performed until January 2018. The following inclusion criteria were defined a priori: 1) randomized trial (≥4 wk duration) comparing ≥2 of the following food groups: refined grains, whole grains, nuts, legumes, fruits and vegetables, eggs, dairy, fish, red meat, and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs); 2) LDL cholesterol and triacylglycerol (TG) were defined as primary outcomes; total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin, homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and C-reactive protein were defined as secondary outcomes. For each outcome, a random NMA was performed, and for the ranking, the surface under the cumulative ranking curves (SUCRA) was determined. A total of 66 randomized trials (86 reports) comparing 10 food groups and enrolling 3595 participants was identified. Nuts were ranked as the best food group at reducing LDL cholesterol (SUCRA: 93%), followed by legumes (85%) and whole grains (70%). For reducing TG, fish (97%) was ranked best, followed by nuts (78%) and red meat (72%). However, these findings are limited by the low quality of the evidence. When combining all 10 outcomes, the highest SUCRA values were found for nuts (66%), legumes (62%), and whole grains (62%), whereas SSBs performed worst (29%).
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  • 2009, Weight Management
    Food intake and satiety following a serving of pulses in young men: effect of processing, recipe, and pulse variety.
    Wong, CL, Mollard, RC, Zafar, TA, Luhovyy, BL, Anderson, GH. Food intake and satiety following a serving of pulses in young men: effect of processing, recipe, and pulse variety. J Am Coll Nutr. 2009; 28(5): 543-52.
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of processing, recipe, and pulse variety on short-term food intake (FI), subjective appetite, and glycemic response after pulse consumption. The results indicate that the short-term effect of pulse consumption on subjective appetite and IF at 120 minutes post meal and in cumulative food intake was determined primarily by energy content, and was little influenced by composition, processing, recipe or variety.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2016, Other
    From beef to beans: eating motives and the replacement of animal proteins with plant proteins among Finnish consumers.
    Vainio, A, Niva, M, Jallinoja, P, Latvala, T. From beef to beans: eating motives and the replacement of animal proteins with plant proteins among Finnish consumers. Appetite. 2016; 1(106): 92-100.
    The aim of this study was to examine how eating motives were associated with self-reported changes in the consumption of beef, beans, and soy products, and changes related to reducing animal and increasing plant proteins. The results suggest that eating motives play an important role in changing towards more sustainable food consumption patterns.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2009, Heart Health
    Fruit, vegetable and bean intake and mortality from cardiovascular disease among Japanese men and women: the JACC Study.
    Nagura, J et al. Fruit, vegetable and bean intake and mortality from cardiovascular disease among Japanese men and women: the JACC Study. Br J Nutr. 2009; 102(2): 285-92.
    The purpose of this study was to examine the association of plant-based food intakes with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and total mortality among Japanese. The researchers found that bean intake was inversely associated with other CVD, total CVD, and total mortality. The researchers conclude that the intake of plant-foods was associated with reduced mortality from CVD and all causes among Japanese men and women.
    PubMed Abstract
  • Other
    Functional and technological potential of dehydrated Phaseolus vulgaris L. flours.
    Ramirez-Jimenez, Ak, Reynoso-Camacho, R, Mendoza-Diaz, S, Loarca-Pina, G. Functional and technological potential of dehydrated Phaseolus vulgaris L. flours. Food Chem. ; 15(161): 254-60.
    This study looked at the effect of cooking followed by dehydration on the bioactive composition, antioxidant activity and technological properties of two varieties of common beans. The dehydration process produced flours with stable water absorption index and low oil pick up. The results suggest that the flour of the variety Negro 8025 beans had a good potential to be considered as functional ingredient for healthy food products.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2017, Glycemic Index
    Glycemic Response to Black Beans and Chickpeas as Part of a Rice Meal: A Randomized Cross-Over Trial.
    Winham DM, Hutchins AM, Thompson SV. Glycemic Response to Black Beans and Chickpeas as Part of a Rice Meal: A Randomized Cross-Over Trial. Nutrients. 2017; 9(10), 1095.
    Legumes, such as black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and chickpeas (Cicer arietinum L.), have a low glycemic index, and may reduce the glycemic load of meals in which they are included. Although the low glycemic response of beans consumed alone has been documented, few studies have examined the glycemic response to traditional food combinations such as black beans and rice or chickpeas and rice. This randomized cross-over study examined the glycemic and insulinemic impact of 50 grams of available carbohydrate from three test meals: plain white rice (control), black beans with rice, and chickpeas with rice among healthy adult women (n = 12, 18-65 years). Treatments were consumed on different mornings, a minimum of 7 days apart. Blood samples were collected at time 0 (fasting), and at 30, 60, 90, and 120 min postprandial, and were subsequently analyzed for glucose and insulin concentrations. Glucose response based on the incremental area under the curve showed a significant difference by treatment (p = 0.027). Changes in blood glucose concentrations were significantly different for the black bean meal and the chickpea meal in comparison to rice alone at 60 min (p = 0.026 and p = 0.024), 90 min (p = 0.001 and p = 0.012) and 120 min post prandial (p = 0.024; black bean meal). Findings indicate that combinations of black beans and chickpeas with white rice improve glycemic response, providing evidence that has promising implications for dietary guidance to reduce postprandial glucose and related health risks through traditional food patterns.
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  • 2016, Gut Health Probiotics
    Gut microbiota, prebiotics, probiotics, and synbiotics in management of obesity and prediabetes: review of randomized controlled trials.
    Barengolts, E. Gut microbiota, prebiotics, probiotics, and synbiotics in management of obesity and prediabetes: review of randomized controlled trials. Endoc Pract. 2016; 22(10): 1224-1234.
    This review looked at randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for the roles of microbiota, pre-, pro-, and synbiotics in metabolic conditions. A number of positive health outcomes were identified from this review, and the researchers suggest that pickled and fermented foods, particularly vegetables and beans, could serve as a dietary source of pre-, pro-, and synbiotics. They conclude that these tools could prove useful in metabolic conditions but further research is needed.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2016, Cancer
    Hemagglutinin isolated from Northeast China black beans induced mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells
    Dan, X, Ng, TB, Wong, JH, Chan, YS, Cheung, RC, Chan WY. A hemagglutinin isolated from Northeast China black beans induced mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2016; 1863(9): 2201-11.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2017, Diabetes Insulin Resistance Metabolic Syndrome, Weight Management
    Heterologous expression of an α-amylase inhibitor from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) in Kluyveromyces lactis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Brain-Isasi S, Álvarez-Lueje A, Higgins TJV. Heterologous expression of an α-amylase inhibitor from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) in Kluyveromyces lactis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Microbial Cell Factories. 2017; 16(1):110.
    Phaseolamin or α-amylase inhibitor 1 (αAI) is a glycoprotein from common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) that inhibits some insect and mammalian α-amylases. Several clinical studies support the beneficial use of bean αAI for control of diabetes and obesity. Commercial extracts of P. vulgaris are available but their efficacy is still under question, mainly because some of these extracts contain antinutritional impurities naturally present in bean seeds and also exhibit a lower specific activity αAI. The production of recombinant αAI allows to overcome these disadvantages and provides a platform for the large-scale production of pure and functional αAI protein for biotechnological and pharmaceutical applications.
    PubMed Abstract
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  • 2012, Diabetes Insulin Resistance Metabolic Syndrome
    High intake of whole grains and beans pattern is inversely associated with insulin resistance in healthy Korean adult populations.
    Song, S, Paik, HY, Song, Y. High intake of whole grains and beans pattern is inversely associated with insulin resistance in healthy Korean adult populations. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2012; 98(3): e28-31.
    This study investigated the association between dietary patterns and insulin resistance in the 3871 healthy Korean adults from the 2007 to 2008 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The whole grains and beans pattern was associated with lower prevalence of insulin resistance.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2012, Cancer
    Human gut flora-fermented nondigestible fraction from cooked bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) modifies protein expression associated with apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and proliferation in human adenocarcinoma colon cancer cells.
    Campos-Vega, R, Garcia-Gasca, T, Guevara-Gonzalez, R, Ramos-Gomez, M, Oomah, BD, Loarca-Pina, G.. Human gut flora-fermented nondigestible fraction from cooked bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) modifies protein expression associated with apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and proliferation in human adenocarcinoma colon cancer cells. J Agric Food Chem. 2012; 60(51): 12443-50.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2015, Cancer
    Identification and monitoring of metabolite markers of dry bean consumption in parallel human and mouse studies.
    Perera, T, Young, MR, Zhang, Z, Murphy, G, Colburn, NH, Lanza, E, Hartman, TJ, Cross, AJ, Bobe, G. Identification and monitoring of metabolite markers of dry bean consumption in parallel human and mouse studies. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2015; 59(4): 795-806.
    This study identified and monitored metabolite markers of dry bean consumption in parallel human and mouse studies that each showed chemopreventive effects of dry bean consumption on colorectal neoplasia risk. The results showed that serum levels of pipecolic acid and S-methyl cysteine are useful biomarkers of dry bean consumption.
    PubMed Abstract
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  • 2015, Colon Colorectal Cancer
    Identification and monitoring of metabolite markers of dry bean consumption in parallel human and mouse studies.
    Perera, T, Young, MR, Zhang, Z, Murphy, G, Colburn, NH, Lanza, E, Hartman, TJ, Cross, AJ, Bobe, G. Identification and monitoring of metabolite markers of dry bean consumption in parallel human and mouse studies. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2015; 59(4): 795-806.
    This study looked to identify and monitor metabolite markers of dry bean consumption in parallel human and mouse studies that each had shown chemopreventive effects of dry bean consumption on colorectal neoplasia risk. Serum levels of pipecolic acid and S-methyl cysteine were determined to be useful biomarkers of dry bean consumption.
    PubMed Abstract
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  • 2015, Heart Health
    Identification of ACE-inhibitory peptides from Phaseolus vulgaris after in vitro gastrointestinal disgestion.
    Tagliazucci, D, Martini, S, Bellesia, A, Conte, A. Identification of ACE-inhibitory peptides from Phaseolus vulgaris after in vitro gastrointestinal disgestion. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2015; 66(7): 774-82.
    The objective of this study was to identify the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory peptides released from thermally treated whole pinto beans after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2018, Nutritional Composition
    In Silico Identification and in Vitro Analysis of B and T-Cell Epitopes of the Black Turtle Bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris L.) Lectin.
    He S, Zhao J, Elfalleh W, Jemaà M, Sun H, Sun X, Tang M, He Q, Wu Z, Lang F. In Silico Identification and in Vitro Analysis of B and T-Cell Epitopes of the Black Turtle Bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris L.) Lectin. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018; 49(4):1600-1614.
    The incidence of lectin allergic disease is increasing in recent decades, and definitive treatment is still lacking. Identification of B and T-cell epitopes of allergen will be useful in understanding the allergen antibody responses as well as aiding in the development of new diagnostics and therapy regimens for lectin poisoning. In the current study, we mainly addressed these questions.
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  • 2014, Nutritional Composition
    In vitro anti-inflammatory activity of phenolic rich extracts from white and red common beans.
    Garcia-Lafuente, A et al. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity of phenolic rich extracts from white and red common beans. Food Chem. 2014; 161: 216-23.
    The purpose of this study was to detail the phenolic compositions, and to determine antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of phenolic rich extracts obtained from white kidney beans (WKB) and round purple beans (RPB). The results suggest that common bean extracts may be used as a source of anti-inflammatory agents as well as a dietary complement for health promotion.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2010, Gut Health Probiotics
    In vitro fermentability and antioxidant capacity of the indigestible fraction of cooked black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), lentils (Lens culinaris L.) and chickpeas (Cicer arietinum L.).
    Hernandez-Salazar, M, Osorio-Diaz, P, Loarca-Pina, G, Reynoso-Camacho, R, Tovar, J, Bello-Perez, LA. In vitro fermentability and antioxidant capacity of the indigestible fraction of cooked black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), lentils (Lens culinaris L.) and chickpeas (Cicer arietinum L.). J Sci Food Agric. 2010; 90(9): 1417-22.
    This study evaluated the cooked seeds of three pulses (black bean, chickpea and lentil) for their indigestible fraction (IF), polyphenols content, antioxidant capacity and in vitro fermentability, including short-chain fatty acid production. The content and capacity varied amongst the three pulses, and all produced short chain fatty acids after 24 hours of in vitro fermentation by human colonic microflora. The researchers conclude that the IF of pulses may be an important source of bioactive compounds.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2012, Cancer
    In vitro investigations of the potential health benefits of Australian-grown faba beans (Vicia faba L.): chemopreventative capacity and inhibitory effects on the angiotensin-converting enzyme, _-glucosidase and lipase.
    Siah, SD, Konczak, I, Agboola, S, Wood, JA, Blanchard, CL. In vitro investigations of the potential health benefits of Australian-grown faba beans (Vicia faba L.): chemopreventative capacity and inhibitory effects on the angiotensin-converting enzyme, _-glucosidase and lipase. Br J Nutr. 2012; 108 (Suppl 1): S123-34.
    This study investigated the functional properties, including antioxidant and chemopreventative capacities as well as the inhibitory effects on angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), _-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase, of three Australian-grown faba bean genotypes. Differences were detected between the various genotypes, but overall supported positive health benefits from faba bean consumption.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2009, Colon Colorectal Cancer
    Inflammation-associated serum and colon markers as indicators of dietary attenuation of colon carcinogenesis in ob/ob mice.
    Mentor-Marcel, RA et al. Inflammation-associated serum and colon markers as indicators of dietary attenuation of colon carcinogenesis in ob/ob mice. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2009; 2(1): 60-9.
    Dietary navy beans and their fractions attenuate colon carcinogenesis in carcinogen-induced genetically obese mice. This study examined if this attenuation was associated with changes in inflammatory cytokines and obesity-related serum proteins. Mice with azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colon cancer were randomly placed on one of four diets (control, whole navy bean, bean residue fraction, or bean extract fraction) for 26 to 28 weeks. Of the AOM-induced genes, IL-6 emerged as a serum protein that was increased in hyperplastic/dysplastic stages of colon carcinogenesis, but attenuated with bean-based diet in serum and colon mucosa.
    PubMed Abstract
    Full Article
  • 2018, Cancer
    Intake of bean fiber, beans, and grains and reduced risk of hormone receptor- negative breast cancer: the San Francisco Bay Area Breast Cancer Study
    Meera Sangaramoorthy, Jocelyn Koo, and Esther M. John. Intake of bean fiber, beans, and grains and reduced risk of hormone receptor- negative breast cancer: the San Francisco Bay Area Breast Cancer Study Cancer Medicine. 2018; .
    High dietary fiber intake has been associated with reduced breast cancer risk, but few studies considered tumor subtypes defined by estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status or included racial/ethnic minority populations who vary in their fiber intake. We analyzed food frequency data from a population‐based case–control study, including 2135 breast cancer cases (1070 Hispanics, 493 African Americans, and 572 non‐Hispanic Whites (NHWs)) and 2571 controls (1391 Hispanics, 557 African Americans, and 623 NHWs). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for breast cancer associated with fiber intake were calculated using unconditional logistic regression. Breast cancer risk associated with high intake (high vs. low quartile) of bean fiber (p‐trend = 0.01), total beans (p‐trend = 0.03), or total grains (p‐trend = 0.05) was reduced by 20%. Inverse associations were strongest for ER‐PR‐ breast cancer, with risk reductions associated with high intake ranging from 28 to 36%. For bean fiber, risk was reduced among foreign‐born Hispanics only, who had the highest fiber intake, whereas for grain intake, inverse associations were found among NHWs only. There was no evidence of association with fiber intake from vegetables and fruits or total intake of vegetables and fruits. A high dietary intake of bean fiber and fiber‐rich foods such as beans and grains may lower the risk of ER‐PR‐ breast cancer, an aggressive breast cancer subtype for which few risk factors have been identified
    PubMed Abstract
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  • 2016, Heart Health
    Intake of legumes and the risk of cardiovascular disease: frailty modeling of a prospective cohort study in the Iranian middle-aged and older population.
    Nouri, F, Sarrafzadegan, N, Mohammadifard, N, Sadeghi, M, Mansourian, M. Intake of legumes and the risk of cardiovascular disease: frailty modeling of a prospective cohort study in the Iranian middle-aged and older population. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2016; 70(2): 217-21.
    The purpose of this study was to explore the association of legume intake (beans, chickpeas, lentil, etc.), as part of a low-glycemic index diet, with the risk of cardiovascular events in the Iranian middle- and old-aged people. The findings indicated a strong inverse relationship between legume intake and the risk of cardiovascular events in old-aged Iranian people.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2014, Heart Health
    Inverse association of legume association and dyslipidemia: Isfahan Healthy Heart Program.
    Mohammadifard, N, Sazzafzadegan, N, Paknahad, Z, Nouri, F. Inverse association of legume association and dyslipidemia: Isfahan Healthy Heart Program. J Clin Lipidol. 2014; 8(6): 584-93.
    This cross-sectional study of 9,660 randomly selected Iranian adults was performed to examine whether regular legume consumption could alter serum lipids level and prevalence of dyslipidemia. The researchers found an inverse dose-response association between the frequency of legume consumption and the risk of hypertriglyceridemia, high LDL-C, and low HDL-C.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2014, Nutritional Composition
    Iron bioavailability of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) intrinsically labeled with (59)Fe.
    Brigide, P et al. Iron bioavailability of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) intrinsically labeled with (59)Fe. J Trace Elem med Biol. 2014; 28(3): 260-5.
    This study was performed in rats with or without iron depletion to evaluate the bioavailability of iron in diets enriched with common beans. The iron bioavailability was higher in the iron-depleted animals than the non-depleted, and the researchers conclude that common beans may be considered an adequate dietary iron source because of its high bioavailability.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2017, Nutritional Composition
    Iron Bioavailability Studies of the First Generation of Iron-Biofortified Beans Released in Rwanda.
    Glahn R, Tako E, Hart J, Haas J, Lung'aho M, Beebe S. Iron Bioavailability Studies of the First Generation of Iron-Biofortified Beans Released in Rwanda. Nutrients. 2017; 9(7), 787.
    This paper represents a series of in vitro iron (Fe) bioavailability experiments, Fe content analysis and polyphenolic profile of the first generation of Fe biofortified beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) selected for human trials in Rwanda and released to farmers of that region. The objective of the present study was to demonstrate how the Caco-2 cell bioassay for Fe bioavailability can be utilized to assess the nutritional quality of Fe in such varieties and how they may interact with diets and meal plans of experimental studies. Furthermore, experiments were also conducted to directly compare this in vitro approach with specific human absorption studies of these Fe biofortified beans. The results show that other foods consumed with beans, such as rice, can negatively affect Fe bioavailability whereas potato may enhance the Fe absorption when consumed with beans. The results also suggest that the extrinsic labelling approach to measuring human Fe absorption can be flawed and thus provide misleading information. Overall, the results provide evidence that the Caco-2 cell bioassay represents an effective approach to evaluate the nutritional quality of Fe-biofortified beans, both separate from and within a targeted diet or meal plan.
    PubMed Abstract
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  • 2015, Cancer
    Isolation of a hemagglutinin with potent antiproliferative activity and a large antifungal defensing from Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Hokkaido large pinto beans.
    Yin, C, Wong, JH, Ng, TB. Isolation of a hemagglutinin with potent antiproliferative activity and a large antifungal defensing from Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Hokkaido large pinto beans. J Agric Food Chem. 2015; 63(22): 5439-48.
    Lectins (hemagglutinins) were isolated from common edible beans and their hemagglutinating, antifungal, and antitumor activities were examined. It inhibited the proliferation of certain cancer cells.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2019, Nutritional Composition
    Kinetic modelling of polyphenol degradation during common beans soaking and cooking.
    Mba OI, Kwofie EM, Ngadi M . Kinetic modelling of polyphenol degradation during common beans soaking and cooking. Heliyon. 2019; 5(5):e01613.
    Phenolic compounds are phytonutrients with anti-inflammatory attributes that are significant for brain, heart and gut health. Losses of natural phenolic compounds in foods occur due to degradation during processing. The extent of degradation depends on the processing conditions applied. In this study, the degradation of total phenolic compounds during the processing of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars was investigated. The effects of soaking time, soaking water temperature and cooking conditions on polyphenol degradation were examined. The total phenolic compounds were determined as gallic acid equivalents. The result shows that increase of hydration time and process water temperature significantly (p < 0.05) increased polyphenol degradation. There was a strong positive Pearson correlation (r > 0. 85) between the rate of water uptake and polyphenol degradation regardless of the water temperature and cultivar. The rate of degradation varied from 0.041 - 0.098 and 0.014-0.069 mg/g per hour for Kabulangeti and Maine cultivar, respectively. The addition sodium chloride (NaCl) and potassium carbonate (K2CO3) during cooking to soften the beans significantly increased the degree of degradation. The activation energy for degradation was estimated as 45.4 and 26.3 kJ/mol for Kabulangeti and Maine cultivar, respectively.
    PubMed Abstract
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  • 2012, Heart Health
    Legume consumption is inversely associated with serum concentrations of adhesion molecules and inflammatory biomarkers among Iranian women.
    Esmaillzadeh, A, Azadbakht, L. Legume consumption is inversely associated with serum concentrations of adhesion molecules and inflammatory biomarkers among Iranian women. J Nutr. 2012; 142(2): 334-9.
    This cross-sectional study of 486 Iranian women was conducted to examine legume consumption in relation to serum concentrations of adhesion molecules and inflammatory biomarkers. Legume intake was inversely associated with serum concentrations of adhesion molecules and inflammatory biomarkers.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2017, Diabetes Insulin Resistance Metabolic Syndrome
    Legume consumption is inversely associated with type 2 diabetes incidence in adults: A prospective assessment from the PREDIMED study.
    Becerra-Tomas, N. et al. Legume consumption is inversely associated with type 2 diabetes incidence in adults: A prospective assessment from the PREDIMED study. Clin Nutr. 2017; [Epub ahead of print] DOI: 10.1016/j.clnu.2017.03.015.
    The aim of this study was to examine the associations between consumption of total legumes and specific subtypes, and type 2 diabetes risk, as well as investigate the theoretical effect of substituting legumes for other protein- or carbohydrate-rich foods. The results showed that substituting half a serving/day of legumes for similar servings of eggs, bread, rice or baked potato was associated with lower risk of diabetes incidence. The researchers conclude that frequent consumption of legumes, in the context of a Mediterranean diet, may provide benefits on type 2 diabetes risk reduction in older adults at high cardiovascular risk.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2009, Cancer
    Legume intake and the risk of cancer: a multisite case-control study in Uruguay.
    Aune, D, De Stefani, E, Ronco, A, Boffetta, P, Deneo-Pellegrini, H, Acosta, G, Mendilaharsu, M. Legume intake and the risk of cancer: a multisite case-control study in Uruguay. Cancer Causes Control.. 2009; 20(9): 1605-15.
    This case control study looked at 11 cancer sites (3,539 cancer cases and 2,032 controls) in Uruguay between 1996 and 2004 to explore the association between legume intake and cancer risk. Higher intake of legumes was associated with a decreased risk of several cancers, including those of the upper aerodigestive tract, stomach, colorectum, and kidney.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2012, Aging Longevity
    Legumes and well-being in the elderly: a preliminary study.
    Smith, AP. . Legumes and well-being in the elderly: a preliminary study. Journal of Food Research. 2012; 1(1): 165-8.
    This paper examines survey studies that look at the association between pea and bean consumption and wellbeing in elderly populations. There were no significant associations observed, but frequent pea and bean consumption was associated with reduced stress, anxiety, and depression.
    PubMed Abstract
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  • 2013, Aging Longevity
    Longevity and diet. Myth or pragmatism?
    Chrysohoou, C, Stefanadis, C. Longevity and diet. Myth or pragmatism? Maturitas. 2013; 76(4): 303-7.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2010, Aging Longevity
    Longevity depends on a balance between proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory factors: use of TCMS and natural products
    Lien, EJ, Lien, LL, Wang, J. Longevity depends on a balance between proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory factors: use of TCMS and natural products Curr Drug Discov Technol. 2010; 7(1): 13-21.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2016, Other
    Low-income US women under-informed of the specific health benefits of consuming beans.
    Winham, DM, Armstrong Florian, TL, Thompson, SV. Low-income US women under-informed of the specific health benefits of consuming beans. PLoS One. 2016; 11(1): e0147592. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0147592.
    This purpose of this study was to assess awareness of bean health benefits among low-income women, and to evaluate any differences by acculturation status for Hispanic women in the southwestern United States. The results suggest that limited resource women have a favorable view of the nutrition value of beans, but the majority did not agree or disagree with statements about the health benefits of beans.
    PubMed Abstract
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  • 2014, Diabetes Insulin Resistance Metabolic Syndrome
    Maternal diabetes or hypertension and lifestyle factors may be associated with metabolic syndrome: a population-based study in Taiwan.
    Chen, TH, Hsiao, HP, Chiu, YW, Shih, NH, Chuang, HY, Huang, CT. Maternal diabetes or hypertension and lifestyle factors may be associated with metabolic syndrome: a population-based study in Taiwan. Kaohsiung J Med Sci. 2014; 30(92) 86-93.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2019, Cancer
    Mechanisms associated to apoptosis of cancer cells by phenolic extracts from two canned common beans varieties (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).
    Moreno-Jiménez MR, López-Barraza R, Cervantes-Cardoza V, Pérez-Ramírez IF, Reyna-Rojas JA, Gallegos-Infante JA, Estrella I, Rojas-Contreras JA, González-Laredo RF, Rocha-Guzmán NE.. Mechanisms associated to apoptosis of cancer cells by phenolic extracts from two canned common beans varieties (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Journal of Food Biochemistry. 2019; doi: 10.1111/jfbc.12680 [Epub ahead of print].
    Two varieties of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), Bayo Victoria and Negro 8025, were evaluated to determine the effect on cellular viability and mechanisms involved in apoptosis pathways, using a cellular model with HT-29 cells. Aqueous methanolic (50:50) extracts from cooked beans were analyzed for phenolic composition, identifying greater diversity of phenolic compounds in Bayo Victoria extracts. However, Negro 8025 showed greater phenolic content and cytotoxicity effects at lower media inhibitory concentrations, and greater effectiveness to activate apoptotic pathways. Proteins related to the arrest of cell cycle were modulated by both bean cultivars. Qualitative analysis by HPLC-PAD and HPLC-MS systems of phenolic compounds in common bean extracts showed mainly hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonols, and monomeric flavan-3-ols. Bioactive phenolics such as catechin, kaempferol, and ferulic acid were found in both cultivars as well anticancer phytochemicals such as quercetin, protocatechuic acid, myricetin, naringenin and their derivatives, and procyanidins. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Polyphenols in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars processed by canning display chemoprotective potential as they activate mechanisms involved in apoptosis pathways. Phenolics in common beans modulate 28 proteins related to apoptotic processes. Therefore, a diet including canned beans (particularly darker varieties) might represent health benefits and cancer-preventive effects.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2012, Cancer
    Metabolomic analysis of the effects of edible dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) on tissue lipid metabolism and carcinogenesis in rats.
    Mensack, MM, McGinley, JN, Thompson, HJ. Metabolomic analysis of the effects of edible dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) on tissue lipid metabolism and carcinogenesis in rats. Br J Nutr. 2012; 108 (Suppl 1): S155-65.
    This study investigated the metabolic pathways and processes that account for dry bean effects on disease risk, with a specific focus on the development of breast cancer.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2012, Colon Colorectal Cancer
    Microarray analyses of genes differentially expressed by diet (black bean and soy flour) during azoxymethane-induced colon carcinogenesis in rats.
    Rondini, EA, Bennink, MR. Microarray analyses of genes differentially expressed by diet (black bean and soy flour) during azoxymethane-induced colon carcinogenesis in rats. J Nutr Metab. 2012; 351796. doi: 10.1155/2012/351796.
    The purpose of this study was to identify genes altered by carcinogen treatment in normal-appearing colonic mucosa and those attenuated by bean feeding. Ninety-five male rats were injected with azyxymethane (AOM) to induce colon cancer, or saline, and were fed either a control diet, black bean-based, or soy flour-based diet. The subject profiles suggest that beans inhibit colon carcinogenesis by modulating cellular kinetics and reducing inflammation, potentially by preserving mucosal barrier function.
    PubMed Abstract
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  • 2015, Diabetes Insulin Resistance Metabolic Syndrome
    Molybdenum and copper in four varieties of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris): new data of potential utility in designing healthy diet for diabetic patients.
    Ojeda, AG, Wrobel, K, Escobosa, AR, Elguera, JC, Garay-Sevilla, ME, Wrobel, K. Molybdenum and copper in four varieties of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris): new data of potential utility in designing healthy diet for diabetic patients. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2015; 163(1-2):244-54.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2019, Overall Nutrition Health Benefits
    Multi-tissue integration of transcriptomic and specialized metabolite profiling provides tools for assessing the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) metabolome.
    Perez de Souza L, Scossa F, Proost S, Bitocchi E, Papa R, Tohge T, Fernie AR. Multi-tissue integration of transcriptomic and specialized metabolite profiling provides tools for assessing the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) metabolome. Plant J.. 2019; 97(6):1132-1153.
    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important legume species with a rich natural diversity of landraces that originated from the wild forms following multiple independent domestication events. After the publication of its genome, several resources for this relevant crop have been made available. A comprehensive characterization of specialized metabolism in P. vulgaris, however, is still lacking. In this study, we used a metabolomics approach based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to dissect the chemical composition at a tissue-specific level in several accessions of common bean belonging to different gene pools. Using a combination of literature search, mass spectral interpretation, 13 C-labeling, and correlation analyses, we were able to assign chemical classes and/or putative structures for approximately 39% of all measured metabolites. Additionally, we integrated this information with transcriptomics data and phylogenetic inference from multiple legume species to reconstruct the possible metabolic pathways and identify sets of candidate genes involved in the biosynthesis of specialized metabolites. A particular focus was given to flavonoids, triterpenoid saponins and hydroxycinnamates, as they represent metabolites involved in important ecological interactions and they are also associated with several health-promoting benefits when integrated into the human diet. The data are presented here in the form of an accessible resource that we hope will set grounds for further studies on specialized metabolism in legumes.
    PubMed Abstract
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  • 2018, Gut Health Probiotics
    Navy and black bean supplementation attenuates colitis-associated inflammation and colonic epithelial damage.
    Monk JM, Wu W, Hutchinson AL, Pauls P, Robinson LE, Power KA. Navy and black bean supplementation attenuates colitis-associated inflammation and colonic epithelial damage. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry. 2018; 56:215-223.
    The enriched levels of nondigestible fermentable carbohydrates and phenolic compounds found in common beans can exert immunomodulatory effects within the colon that improve gut health and mitigate the severity of colitis-associated inflammatory pathology. Prior to acute colitis onset, C57Bl/6 mice were prefed isocaloric 20% cooked navy bean (NB) or black bean (BB) diets for 3 weeks and switched to control basal diet (BD) 24 h prior to colitis induction via 5-day exposure to dextran sodium sulfate (2% w/v in drinking water)+3 days of fresh water. The severity of the acute colitis phenotype was attenuated by bean prefeeding, evidenced by reduced colon tissue inflammatory transcription factor activation (NFκB, STAT3) and inflammatory mediator levels in the colon (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-18 and MCP-1) and serum (TNFα, IL-6, IL-1β, MCP-1) versus BD (P≤.05). Additionally, biomarkers of enhanced wound repair responses were increased by bean prefeeding including colon tissue protein levels of IL-22, IL-27 and activated (i.e., GTP-bound) Cdc42 and Rac1 versus BD (P≤.05). mRNA expressions of genes involved in normal colonic epithelial function and the promotion of epithelial barrier integrity, defense and/or restitution and wound closure including MUC1, RELMβ, IgA and REG3γ were all increased in NB and BB prefed mice versus BD (P≤.05). Collectively, bean supplementation prior to colitis induction (i.e., mimicking disease relapse) primes the colonic microenvironment to attenuate the severity of the colitis inflammatory phenotype and maintain aspects of epithelial barrier function.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2017, Gut Health Probiotics
    Navy and black bean supplementation primes the colonic mucosal microenvironment to improve gut health.
    Monk JM, Lepp D, Wu W, Pauls KP, Robinson LE, Power KA. Navy and black bean supplementation primes the colonic mucosal microenvironment to improve gut health. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry. 2017; 49:89-100.
    Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are enriched in non-digestible fermentable carbohydrates and phenolic compounds that can modulate the colonic microenvironment (microbiota and host epithelial barrier) to improve gut health. In a comprehensive assessment of the impact of two commonly consumed bean varieties (differing in levels and types of phenolic compounds) within the colonic microenvironment, C57Bl/6 mice were fed diets supplemented with 20% cooked navy bean (NB) or black bean (BB) flours or an isocaloric basal diet control (BD) for 3 weeks. NB and BB similarly altered the fecal microbiota community structure (16S rRNA sequencing) notably by increasing the abundance of carbohydrate fermenting bacteria such as Prevotella, S24-7 and Ruminococcus flavefaciens, which coincided with enhanced short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production (microbial-derived carbohydrate fermentation products) and colonic expression of the SCFA receptors GPR-41/-43/-109a. Both NB and BB enhanced multiple aspects of mucus and epithelial barrier integrity vs. BD including: (i) goblet cell number, crypt mucus content and mucin mRNA expression, (ii) anti-microbial defenses (Reg3γ), (iii) crypt length and epithelial cell proliferation, (iv) apical junctional complex components (occludin, JAM-A, ZO-1 and E-cadherin) mRNA expression and (v) reduced serum endotoxin concentrations. Interestingly, biomarkers of colon barrier integrity (crypt height, mucus content, cell proliferation and goblet cell number) were enhanced in BB vs. NB-fed mice, suggesting added benefits attributable to unique BB components (e.g., phenolics). Overall, NB and BB improved baseline colonic microenvironment function by altering the microbial community structure and activity and promoting colon barrier integrity and function; effects which may prove beneficial in attenuating gut-associated diseases.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2018, Heart Health
    Navy Bean and Rice Bran Intake Alters the Plasma Metabolome of Children at Risk for Cardiovascular Disease.
    Li KJ, Borresen EC, Jenkins-Puccetti N, Luckasen G, Ryan EP. Navy Bean and Rice Bran Intake Alters the Plasma Metabolome of Children at Risk for Cardiovascular Disease. Front Nutr.. 2018; DOI: 10.3389/fnut.2017.00071.
    Abnormal cholesterol in childhood predicts cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in adulthood. Navy beans and rice bran have demonstrated efficacy in regulating blood lipids in adults and children; however, their effects on modulating the child plasma metabolome has not been investigated and warrants investigation. A pilot, randomized-controlled, clinical trial was conducted in 38 children (10 ± 0.8 years old) with abnormal cholesterol. Participants consumed a snack for 4 weeks containing either: no navy bean or rice bran (control); 17.5 g/day cooked navy bean powder; 15 g/day heat-stabilized rice bran; or 9 g/day navy beans and 8 g/day rice bran. Plasma metabolites were extracted using 80% methanol for global, non-targeted metabolic profiling via ultra-high performance liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Differences in plasma metabolite levels after 4 weeks of dietary intervention compared to control and baseline were analyzed using analysis of variance and Welch's t-tests (p ≤ 0.05). The results support the hypothesis that consumption of these foods impact blood lipid metabolism with implications for reducing CVD risk in children. Complementary and distinct lipid pathways were affected by the diet groups, including acylcarnitines and lysolipids (navy bean), sphingolipids (rice bran), and phospholipids (navy bean + rice bran). Navy bean consumption decreased free fatty acids associated with metabolic diseases (palmitate and arachidonate) and increased the relative abundance of endogenous anti-inflammatory lipids (endocannabinoids, N-linoleoylglycine, 12,13-diHOME). Findings from this pilot study support the need for investigating the effects of these foods for longer durations to reduce CVD risk.
    PubMed Abstract
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  • 2019, Gut Health Probiotics
    Navy bean supplemented high-fat diet improves intestinal health, epithelial barrier integrity and critical aspects of the obese inflammatory phenotype.
    Monk JM, Wu W, Lepp D, Wellings HR, Hutchinson AL, Liddle DM, Graf D, Pauls KP, Robinson LE, Power KA. Navy bean supplemented high-fat diet improves intestinal health, epithelial barrier integrity and critical aspects of the obese inflammatory phenotype. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry. 2019; 70:91-104.
    Obesity is associated with impaired intestinal epithelial barrier function and an altered microbiota community structure, which contribute to host systemic inflammation and metabolic dysfunction. Fiber-rich common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) promote intestinal health (microbiota and host epithelial barrier integrity) in lean mice. The objective was to assess the intestinal health promoting effects of navy bean supplementation during high-fat (HF)diet-induced obesity. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed either a high-fat (HF) diet (60% of kcal from fat) or an isocaloric HF diet supplemented with 15.7% (by weight) cooked navy bean powder (HF+B) for 12 weeks. Compared to HF, the HF+B diet altered the fecal microbiota community structure (16S rRNA gene sequencing), most notably increasing abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila (+19-fold), whose abundance typically decreases in obese humans and rodents. Additionally, HF+B fecal abundance of carbohydrate fermenting, short chain fatty acid (SCFA) producing Prevotella (+332-fold) and S24-7 (+1.6-fold) and fecal SCFA levels were increased. HF+B improved intestinal health and epithelial barrier integrity versus HF, evidenced by reduced serum fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran concentration in an in vivo gut permeability test, and increased intestinal mRNA expression of tight junction components (ZO-1, occludin), anti-microbial defenses (Reg3γ, IgA, Defα5, Defβ2) and mucins (Muc2). Additionally, HF+B improved the systemic obese phenotype via reduced serum HOMA-IR and leptin:adiponectin ratio, and locally via attenuation of epididymal adipose tissue crown-like structure formation, adipocyte size, and inflammatory transcription factor (NFκBp65 and STAT3) activation. Therefore, navy bean supplementation improved obese intestinal health (microbiota and epithelial barrier integrity) and attenuated the severity of the obese phenotype.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2018, Colon Colorectal Cancer
    Navy Beans Impact the Stool Metabolome and Metabolic Pathways for Colon Health in Cancer Survivors.
    Baxter BA, Oppel RC, Ryan EP. Navy Beans Impact the Stool Metabolome and Metabolic Pathways for Colon Health in Cancer Survivors. Nutrients. 2018; 11(1): 28.
    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States and emerging evidence supports that increased consumption of legumes, such as navy beans, can reduce risk. Navy bean consumption was previously shown to modulate host and microbiome metabolism, and this investigation was performed to assess the impact on the human stool metabolome, which includes the presence of navy bean metabolites. This 4-week, randomized-controlled trial with overweight and obese CRC survivors involved consumption of 1 meal and 1 snack daily. The intervention contained 35 g of cooked navy bean or macronutrient matched meals and snacks with 0 g of navy beans for the control group (n = 18). There were 30 statistically significant metabolite differences in the stool of participants that consumed navy bean at day 28 compared to the participants' baseline (p ≤ 0.05) and 26 significantly different metabolites when compared to the control group. Of the 560 total metabolites identified from the cooked navy beans, there were 237 possible navy bean-derived metabolites that were identified in the stool of participants consuming navy beans, such as N-methylpipecolate, 2-aminoadipate, piperidine, and vanillate. The microbial metabolism of amino acids and fatty acids were also identified in stool after 4 weeks of navy bean intake including cadaverine, hydantoin-5 propionic acid, 4-hydroxyphenylacetate, and caprylate. The stool relative abundance of ophthalmate increased 5.25-fold for navy bean consumers that can indicate glutathione regulation, and involving cancer control mechanisms such as detoxification of xenobiotics, antioxidant defense, proliferation, and apoptosis. Metabolic pathways involving lysine, and phytochemicals were also modulated by navy bean intake in CRC survivors. These metabolites and metabolic pathways represent an acute response to increased navy bean intake, which merit further investigation for improving colonic health after long-term consumption.
    PubMed Abstract
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  • 2017, Other
    New research highlights: Impact of chronic ingestion of white kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Beldia) on small-intestinal disaccharidase activity in Wistar rats.
    Nciri N, Cho N.. New research highlights: Impact of chronic ingestion of white kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Beldia) on small-intestinal disaccharidase activity in Wistar rats. Toxicol Rep. 2017; 5:46-55.
    The chronic ingestion of raw or undercooked kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is involved in the pathogenesis of multiple organ dysfunction; the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. The objective of this study was to assess the gavage effects of a raw Beldia bean variety on the brush border disaccharidase activities in the jejunal mucosa of Wistar rats. Twenty young adult male rats were randomly assigned into 2 groups of 10 rats each: Control, rats were gavaged with 300 mg of a rodent pellet flour suspension (RPFS); Experimental, rats were orogastrically fed a dose of 300 mg Beldia bean flour suspension (BBFS). Prior to determining the disaccharidase activity by Dahlqvist method, the blood and stool specimens were collected on day 10. The sera and feces were screened for the presence of lectins by serologic and hemagglutination assays. The results showed that the brush border maltase and sucrase activities were significantly diminished but lactase activity did not undergo any change in BBFS-gavaged animals as compared with control. Preliminary immunobiochemical assays revealed the absence of lectins in the systemic circulation and feces of rats, but further work is required to prove this. Overall, the dietary administration of BBFS caused depression of the activity of the small intestinal enzymes maltase and sucrase.
    PubMed Abstract
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  • 2012, Colon Colorectal Cancer
    Non-digestible fraction of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) modulates signaling pathway genes at an early stage of colon cancer in Sprague-Dawley rats.
    Hayde, VC, Ramon, GG, Lorenzo, GO, Dave, OB, Rosalia, RC, Paul, W, Guadalupe, LP. Non-digestible fraction of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) modulates signaling pathway genes at an early stage of colon cancer in Sprague-Dawley rats. Br J Nutr. 2012; 012; 108 (Suppl 1): S145-54.
    This study examined the molecular changes involved in the Tp53 pathway at an early stage in the distal colon tissue of azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colon cancer in rats after exposure to diets containing the non-digestible fraction (NDF) of cooked bean. This demonstrates that NDF from cooked beans modulates gene expression profiles in colon tissue of AOM-induced rats, contributing to the chemoprotective effect of common beans on early-stage colon cancer.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2010, Colon Colorectal Cancer
    Non-digestible fraction of cooked bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivar Bayo Madero suppresses colonic aberrant crypt foci in azoxymethane-induced rats.
    Vergara-Castaneda, HA et al. Non-digestible fraction of cooked bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivar Bayo Madero suppresses colonic aberrant crypt foci in azoxymethane-induced rats. Food Funct. 2010; 1(3): 294-300.
    In this study the non-digestible fraction (NDF) of common beans (cultivar Bayo Madero) was evaluated for its chemopreventive effect on azoxymethane (AOM) induced aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in rats. The results indicate that cooked beans and NDF provide direct chemoprotection against early stage of AOM-induced colon cancer in rats.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2012, Heart Health
    Non-soy legume consumption lowers cholesterol levels: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
    Bazzano, LA, Thompson, AM, Tees, MT, Nguyen, CH, and Winham, DM. Non-soy legume consumption lowers cholesterol levels: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2012; 21(2): 94_103.
    This meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials evaluated the effects of non-soy legume consumption on blood lipids. Ten (10) randomized clinical trails were selected, and results indicate that a diet rich in legumes, other than soy, decreases total and LDL cholesterol.
    PubMed Abstract
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  • 2015, Diabetes Insulin Resistance Metabolic Syndrome
    Non-soya legume-based therapeutic lifestyle change diet reduces inflammatory status in diabetic patients: a randomized cross-over clinical trial.
    Hosseinpour-Niazi, S, Mirmiran, P, Fallah-Ghohroudi, A, Azizi, F. Non-soya legume-based therapeutic lifestyle change diet reduces inflammatory status in diabetic patients: a randomized cross-over clinical trial. Br J Nutr. 2015; 114(2): 213-9.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2013, Cancer
    Northeast red beans produce a thermostable and pH-stable defensin-like peptide with potent antifungal activity.
    Chan, YS, Ng, TB. Northeast red beans produce a thermostable and pH-stable defensin-like peptide with potent antifungal activity. Cell Biochem Biophys. 2013; 66(3): 637-48.
    An antifungal peptide was purified from northeast red beans and its stability and antifungal activity were examined. The peptide impeded the growth of a number of pathogenic fungi and the activity of the peptide was fully preserved up to 100 degrees C and pH values from 0 to 12.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2015, Cancer
    Nutrient and nonnutrient components of legumes, and its chemopreventive activity: a review.
    Sanchez-Chino, X, Jimenez-Martinez, C, Davila-Ortiz, G, Alvarez-Gonzalez, I, Madrigal-Bujaidar, E. Nutrient and nonnutrient components of legumes, and its chemopreventive activity: a review. Nutr Cancer. 2015; 67(3): 401-10.
    This review examines the nutritional and reduced risk of disease qualities associated with legumes consumption, as well as the potential as an alternative chemopreventive therapy against certain forms of cancer, especially colon.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2016, Nutritional Composition
    Nutrients, phytochemicals and antioxidant activities of 26 kidney bean cultivars.
    Kan, L et al. Nutrients, phytochemicals and antioxidant activities of 26 kidney bean cultivars. Food Chem Toxicol. 2016; doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2016.09.007.
    This study provided a detailed characterization of the nutrients and phytochemicals with antioxidant activities of 26 kidney beans. The results indicate that kidney beans are excellent sources of health-promoting compounds.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2014, Overall Nutrition Health Benefits
    Nutritional and health benefits of dried beans.
    Messina, V. Nutritional and health benefits of dried beans. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014; 100 (Suppl 1): 437S-42S.
    This review paper examines the nutrient composition, as well as health benefits of dried beans. The paper suggests that low intake of beans may be due to a negative culinary image and intestinal discomfort. Promotional efforts are needed to increase bean intake.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2014, Overall Nutrition Health Benefits
    Nutritional and health benefits of pulses.
    Mudryi, AN, Yu, N, Aukema, HM. Nutritional and health benefits of pulses. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2014; 39(11): 1197-204.
    This review paper examines the history of pulses, global production, nutrient composition, as well as health benefits.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2014, Overall Nutrition Health Benefits
    Nutritional and health perspectives of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.): an overview.
    Hayat, I, Ahmad, A, Masud, T, Ahmed, A, Bashir, S. Nutritional and health perspectives of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.): an overview. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2014; 54(5): 580-92.
    This review mainly focuses the important nutritional aspects of beans as well as their contribution in decreasing the risks of chronically degenerative diseases.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2018, Nutritional Composition
    Nutritional Composition and Bioactive Content of Legumes: Characterization of Pulses Frequently Consumed in France and Effect of the Cooking Method.
    Margier M, Georgé S, Hafnaoui N, Remond D, Nowicki M, Du Chaffaut L, Amiot MJ, Reboul E. Nutritional Composition and Bioactive Content of Legumes: Characterization of Pulses Frequently Consumed in France and Effect of the Cooking Method. Nutrients. 2018; 10(11).
    Pulses display nutritional benefits and are recommended in sustainable diets. Indeed, they are rich in proteins and fibers, and can contain variable amounts of micronutrients. However, pulses also contain bioactive compounds such as phytates, saponins, or polyphenols/tannins that can exhibit ambivalent nutritional properties depending on their amount in the diet. We characterized the nutritional composition and bioactive compound content of five types of prepared pulses frequently consumed in France (kidney beans, white beans, chickpeas, brown and green lentils, flageolets), and specifically compared the effects of household cooking vs. canning on the composition of pulses that can be consumed one way or the other. The contents in macro-, micronutrients, and bioactive compounds highly varied from one pulse to another (i.e., 6.9 to 9.7 g/100 g of cooked product for proteins, 4.6 to 818.9 µg/100 g for lutein or 15.0 to 284.3 mg/100 g for polyphenols). The preparation method was a key factor governing pulse final nutritional composition in hydrophilic compounds, depending on pulse species. Canning led to a greater decrease in proteins, total dietary fibers, magnesium or phytate contents compared to household cooking (i.e., -30%, -44%, -33% and -38%, p < 0.05, respectively, in kidney beans). As canned pulses are easy to use for consumers, additional research is needed to improve their transformation process to further optimize their nutritional quality.
    PubMed Abstract
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  • 2013, Heart Health
    Nutritional quality of legumes, and their role in cardiometabolic risk prevention: a review.
    Bouchenak, M and Lamri-Senhadji, M. Nutritional quality of legumes, and their role in cardiometabolic risk prevention: a review. J Med Food. 2013; 16(3): 185-98.
    This review provides an overview of the nutritional qualities of legumes and their potential contribution to reducing cardiometabolic risk factors.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2016, Other
    Optimized formulation and processing protocol for a supplementary bean-based composite flour.
    Ndagire, CT, Muyonga, JH, Manju, R, Nakimbugwe, D. Optimized formulation and processing protocol for a supplementary bean-based composite flour. Food Sci Nutr. 2016; 3(6): 527-38.
    The purpose of this study was to develop a nutritious product, based on common dry beans and other grains, suitable for supplementary feeding. The processing and formulation were tested, and the result was a product with high desirability.
    PubMed Abstract
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  • 2016, Cancer
    Peptides present in the non-digestible fraction of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) inhibit the angiotensin-I converting enzyme by interacting with its catalytic cavity independent of their antioxidant capacity.
    Luna-Vital, DA, Gonzalez de Mejia, E, Medoza, S, Loarca-Pina, G. Peptides present in the non-digestible fraction of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) inhibit the angiotensin-I converting enzyme by interacting with its catalytic cavity independent of their antioxidant capacity. Food Funct. 2016; 6(5): 1470-9.
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory potential and antioxidant capacity of pure synthesized peptides originally identified in the non-digestible fraction of beans. The results support that the peptides may exert benefits independent of their antioxidant activity, by ACE inhibition.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2011, Gut Health Probiotics
    Perception of flatulence from bean consumption among adults in 3 feeding studies.
    Winham, DM, Hutchins, AM. Perception of flatulence from bean consumption among adults in 3 feeding studies. Nutr J. 2011; 10:128.
    PubMed Abstract
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  • 2012, Glycemic Index
    Phaseolus beans: impact on glycaemic response and chronic disease risk in human subjects.
    Hutchins, AM, Winham, DM, Thompson, SV. Phaseolus beans: impact on glycaemic response and chronic disease risk in human subjects. Br J Nutr. 2012; 108 Suppl 1 (S52-65).
    The paper discusses the influence of common beans on glycemic response and the impact that relationship may have on developing diabetes, CVD and cancer.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2018, Heart Health
    Phaseolus vulgaris Exerts an Inhibitory Effect on Platelet Aggregation through AKT Dependent Way.
    Rodríguez-Azúa R, Quinteros EF, Olate-Briones A, Moore-Carrasco R. Phaseolus vulgaris Exerts an Inhibitory Effect on Platelet Aggregation through AKT Dependent Way. Prev Nutr Food Sci. 2018; 23(2):102-107.
    The Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean), a worldwide vegetable of high consumption, can act as a nutritional supplement in the diet of oversized individuals to reduce weight. Studies have demonstrated the existence of molecules capable of inhibiting the breakdown of carbohydrates via inhibition of both α-amylases and glycosidases. Here, we describe a novel property of the Phaseolus vulgaris: inhibition of thrombotic cardiovascular events. Using assays to test platelet aggregation and secretion, and flow cytometry against the surface expression of P-Selectin. We show that bean extracts significantly reduced adenosine 5'-diphosphate and arachidonic acid induced-platelet aggregation. The mechanism underlying such effect appears to be mediated by AKT, since AKT hypo-phosphorylation decreases the "inside out" activation of platelets. In sum, our results support the hypothesis that common beans are nutritional ingredients that help reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases associated with platelet hyper-reactivity.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2013, Diabetes Insulin Resistance Metabolic Syndrome
    Phaseolus vulgaris extract affects glycometabolic and appetite control in healthy human subjects.
    Spadafranca, A, Rinelli, S, Riva, A, Morazzoni, P, Magni, P, Bertoli, S, Battezzati, A. Phaseolus vulgaris extract affects glycometabolic and appetite control in healthy human subjects. Br J Nutr. 2013; 109(10): 1789-95.
    This study evaluated the effects of a purified Phaseolus vulgaris extract (PVE), when employed as a supplement in a mixed balanced meal (60% carbohydrates, 25% lipids and 15% protein), on glycometabolic and appetite control. The PVE supplementation reduced postprandial glucose, insulin and C-peptide excursions, suppressed ghrelin secretion and affected satiety sensations, inducing a lower desire to eat.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2019, Heart Health
    Phaseolus vulgaris L. Extract: Alpha-Amylase Inhibition against Metabolic Syndrome in Mice.
    Micheli L, Lucarini E, Trallori E, Avagliano C, De Caro C, Russo R, Calignano A, Ghelardini C, Pacini A, Di Cesare Mannelli L. Phaseolus vulgaris L. Extract: Alpha-Amylase Inhibition against Metabolic Syndrome in Mice. Nutrients. 2019; 11(8):1778.
    To examine the effects of the alpha-amylase inhibitor isoform 1 called phaseolamin, a standardized extract from white kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L) was tested against the hallmarks of metabolic syndrome. The efficacy of a per os repeated treatment with P. vulgaris extract (500 mg/kg) was compared with metformin (100 mg/kg) and atorvastatin (10 mg/kg) in a model of metabolic syndrome evoked by prolonged high fat diet (HFD; week 1 to week 19) in C57BL/6 mice. Bean extract and compounds administration started after metabolic syndrome establishment (week 11). P. vulgaris extract reduced the body weight overtime, as well as effectively lowered glycaemia, triglycerides, and cholesterol. On week 19, bean extract normalized the HFD-evoked tolerance to glucose and insulin. According to the phytochemical characterization, it inhibited the alpha-amylase activity. Animals treated with the extract were rescued from motor impairments and nociceptive threshold alterations induced by HFD. Specific organs analysis revealed that P. vulgaris extract decreased hepatic steatosis and lipid peroxidation in liver. It protected the heart from HFD oxidative alterations increasing the expression of the detoxifying enzymes catalase and glutathione reductase, and normalizing NADH dehydrogenase level. The histological analysis of aorta showed a protection about the development of fatty streaks in the muscular layers. In conclusion, a prolonged treatment with the standardized extract of P. vulgaris significantly reduced several pathological features related to a metabolic syndrome-like condition; a multifactorial approach that candidates this vegetal product as a possible therapeutic option against metabolic syndrome.
    PubMed Abstract
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  • 2015, Nutritional Composition
    Phaseolus vulgaris lectins: a systematic review of characteristics and health implications.
    He, S, Simpson, BK, Sun, H, Ngadi, MO, Ma, Y, Huang, T. Phaseolus vulgaris lectins: a systematic review of characteristics and health implications. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2015; .
    This systematic review examines the research findings of Phaseolus vulgaris (beans) lectins including anti-nutritional factors, health impacts, purification strategies and novel processing trends.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2016, Cancer
    Phenolic composition and antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of the extracts of twelve common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) endemic ecotypes of southern Italy before and after cooking
    Ombra, MN, d’Acierno, A, Nazzaro, F, Riccardi, R, Spigno, P, Zaacardelli, M, Pane, C, Maione, M, Fratianni, F. Phenolic composition and antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of the extracts of twelve common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) endemic ecotypes of southern Italy before and after cooking Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2016; doi: 10.1155/2016/1398298. Epub 2016 Dec 25.
    PubMed Abstract
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  • 2016, Cancer
    Phenolic composition and antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of the extracts of twelve common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) endemic ecotypes of southern Italy before and after cooking.
    . Phenolic composition and antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of the extracts of twelve common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) endemic ecotypes of southern Italy before and after cooking. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2016; doi: 10.1155/2016/1398298. Epub 2016 Dec 25..
    This paper analyzed extracts from twelve varieties of beans to determine their phenolic profiles, antioxidant activity, and the in vitro anti-proliferative activity. The polyphenol composition and concentration varied by cultivar. Cooking only marginally affected antioxidant activity. The extracts were all capable of inhibiting the proliferation of human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma cells, human breast cancer cell MCF-7, and A549 NSCLC cell line.
    PubMed Abstract
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  • 2016, Nutritional Composition
    Phenolic composition and antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of the extracts of twelve common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) endemic ecotypes of southern Italy before and after cooking.
    Ombra, MN et al. Phenolic composition and antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of the extracts of twelve common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) endemic ecotypes of southern Italy before and after cooking. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2016; doi: 10.1155/2016/1398298.
    The objective of this study was to analyze the extracts of 12 ecotypes of dry beans in order to determine their phenolic profiles, antioxidant activity, and the in vitro antiproliferative activity. Cultivars differed in composition and concentration of polyphenols. The phenolic composition differences did impact their biological activity, but not significantly. Cooking time also had a marginal impact on antioxidant activity.
    PubMed Abstract
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  • 2017, Nutritional Composition
    Phenolic composition and antioxidant potential of grain legume seeds: A review.
    Singh B, Singh JP, Kaur A, Singh N. Phenolic composition and antioxidant potential of grain legume seeds: A review. Food Res Int. 2017; 101:1-16.
    Legumes are a good source of bioactive phenolic compounds which play significant roles in many physiological as well as metabolic processes. Phenolic acids, flavonoids and condensed tannins are the primary phenolic compounds that are present in legume seeds. Majority of the phenolic compounds are present in the legume seed coats. The seed coat of legume seeds primarily contains phenolic acids and flavonoids (mainly catechins and procyanidins). Gallic and protocatechuic acids are common in kidney bean and mung bean. Catechins and procyanidins represent almost 70% of total phenolic compounds in lentils and cranberry beans (seed coat). The antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds is in direct relation with their chemical structures such as number as well as position of the hydroxyl groups. Processing mostly leads to the reduction of phenolic compounds in legumes owing to chemical rearrangements. Phenolic content also decreases due to leaching of water-soluble phenolic compounds into the cooking water. The health benefits of phenolic compounds include acting as anticarcinogenic, anti-thrombotic, anti-ulcer, anti-artherogenic, anti-allergenic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, immunemodulating, anti-microbial, cardioprotective and analgesic agents. This review provides comprehensive information of phenolic compounds identified in grain legume seeds along with discussing their antioxidant and health promoting activities.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2015, Gut Health Probiotics
    Physicochemical properties and in vitro digestibility of cooked regular and nondarkening cranberry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and their effects on bioaccessibility, phenolic composition, and antioxidant activity.
    Chen, PX et al. Physicochemical properties and in vitro digestibility of cooked regular and nondarkening cranberry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and their effects on bioaccessibility, phenolic composition, and antioxidant activity. J Agric Food Chem. 2015; 63(48): 10448-58.
    Cranberry beans from regular (RR) and nondarkening (CND) genotypes were pressure cooked, free, conjugated, and bound phenolics were analyzed. In vitro gastrointestinal digestion was stimulated to determine the bioaccessibility of these fractions. Genotype, cooking and digestions impacted the phenolic content and availability of the fractions.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2016, Nutritional Composition
    Phytochemical distribution in hull and cotyledon of adzuki bean (Vigan angularis L.) and mung bean (Vigna radiate L.), and their contribution to antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic activities.
    Luo, J, Cai, W, Wu, T, Xu, B. Phytochemical distribution in hull and cotyledon of adzuki bean (Vigan angularis L.) and mung bean (Vigna radiate L.), and their contribution to antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic activities. Food Chem. 2016; 201: 350-60.
    This study examined the total saponin content, total phenolics content, total flavonoids content, condensed tannin content in hull, cotyledon and whole grain of both adzuki bean and mung bean. The results indicated that the bean hulls were the most abundant in phytochemicals and largely contributed antioxidant activities, anti-inflammatory effects, and anti-diabetic effects of whole grains.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2007, Heart Health
    Pinto bean consumption changes SCFA profiles in fecal fermentations, bacterial populations of the lower bowel, and lipid profiles in blood of humans.
    Finley, JW, Burrell, JB, Reeves, PG. Pinto bean consumption changes SCFA profiles in fecal fermentations, bacterial populations of the lower bowel, and lipid profiles in blood of humans. J Nutr. 2007; 137(11): 2391-8.
    This study assessed whether pinto bean consumption affects in vitro fecal bacterial fermentation and production of short chain fatty acids (SCFA), colonic bacterial populations, and serum lipids. Adults grouped with either premetabolic syndrome or controls were randomly assigned to consume either a bean entr_e (1/2 c. of dried, cooked pinto beans) or an isocaloric chicken soup entr_e daily for 12 weeks. Beans consumption lowered total serum cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol without affecting serum triglycerides, VLDL cholesterol, or glucose. The researchers conclude that bean consumption can improve lipid profiles associated with cardiovascular disease, but does not clearly confer health benefits related to colon cancer risk.
    PubMed Abstract
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  • 2007, Heart Health
    Pinto bean consumption reduces biomarkers for heart disease risk.
    Winham, DM, Hutchins, AM, Johnston, CS. Pinto bean consumption reduces biomarkers for heart disease risk. J Am Coll Nutr. 2007; 26(3): 243-09.
    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of daily intake of 1/2 c. pinto beans, black-eyed peas or carrots (placebo) on risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD) and diabetes mellitus in mildly insulin resistant adults over an 8-week period. Pinto bean consumption differed significantly from the placebo, resulting in reductions in total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol. The researchers conclude that pinto bean intake should be encouraged to reduce the risk of CHD.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2019, Overall Nutrition Health Benefits
    Pinto Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Lower Non-HDL Cholesterol in Hamsters Fed a Diet Rich in Saturated Fat and Act on Genes Involved in Cholesterol Homeostasis.
    Nguyen AT, Althwab S, Qiu H, Zbasnik R, Urrea C, Carr TP, Schlegel V. Pinto Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Lower Non-HDL Cholesterol in Hamsters Fed a Diet Rich in Saturated Fat and Act on Genes Involved in Cholesterol Homeostasis. J Nutr. 2019; 149(6):996-1003.
    Pinto beans contain multiple active agents such as polyphenols, flavonoids, and saponins, and have been shown to lower cholesterol, but the mechanisms involved in this effect have not been explored. This study was to investigate the changes in cholesterol metabolism in response to whole pinto beans (wPB) and their hulls (hPB) supplemented into a diet rich in saturated fat and the molecular mechanisms potentially responsible for these effects in hamsters.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2016, Cancer
    Plant protease inhibitors in therapeutics-focus on cancer therapy
    Srikanth, S, Chen, Z. Plant protease inhibitors in therapeutics-focus on cancer therapy. Front Pharmacol. 2016; 7: 470.
    Testing synopsis initiation
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  • 2016, Cancer
    Plant protease inhibitors in therapeutics-focus on cancer therapy.
    Srikanth, S, Chen, Z. Plant protease inhibitors in therapeutics-focus on cancer therapy. Front Pharmacol. 2016; 0.618055556.
    Protease inhibitors are found in plants and protect them against diseases, insects, pests and herbivores. Research has examined their roles as therapeutic agents, primarily dealing with various human cancers. Bowman-Birk inhibitors (BBI) has been extensively studied in the treatment of many diseases, and is found in a variety of plant foods, including beans.
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  • 2009, Heart Health
    Polyphenol-containing azuki bean (Vigna angularis) extract attenuates blood pressure elevation and modulates nitric oxide synthase and caveolin-1 expressions in rats with hypertension.
    Mukai, Y, Sato, S. Polyphenol-containing azuki bean (Vigna angularis) extract attenuates blood pressure elevation and modulates nitric oxide synthase and caveolin-1 expressions in rats with hypertension. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. . 2009; 19(7): 491-7..
    In this study, the researchers investigated the effects of polyphenol-containing azuki bean extract (ABE) on elevated blood pressure, nitric oxide (NO) production, and expressions of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), inducible NOS (iNOS), and caveolin-1 proteins in the aorta and kidney of chronically hypertensive rats. ABE reduced the elevated blood pressure and increased NO production in long-term treatment. It may be associated with the modulation of eNOS and iNOS protein expressions in the aorta and kidney during the development of hypertension.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2017, Overall Nutrition Health Benefits
    Polyphenol-Rich Dry Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and Their Health Benefits.
    Ganesan K, Xu B. Polyphenol-Rich Dry Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and Their Health Benefits. Int J Mol Sci. 2017; 18(11).
    Polyphenols are plant metabolites with potent anti-oxidant properties, which help to reduce the effects of oxidative stress-induced dreaded diseases. The evidence demonstrated that dietary polyphenols are of emerging increasing scientific interest due to their role in the prevention of degenerative diseases in humans. Possible health beneficial effects of polyphenols are based on the human consumption and their bioavailability. Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are a greater source of polyphenolic compounds with numerous health promoting properties. Polyphenol-rich dry common beans have potential effects on human health, and possess anti-oxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-obesity, anti-inflammatory and anti-mutagenic and anti-carcinogenic properties. Based on the studies, the current comprehensive review aims to provide up-to-date information on the nutritional compositions and health-promoting effect of polyphenol-rich common beans, which help to explore their therapeutic values for future clinical studies. Investigation of common beans and their impacts on human health were obtained from various library databases and electronic searches (Science Direct PubMed, and Google Scholar).
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  • 2009, Weight Management
    Potential efficacy of preparations derived from Phaseolus vulgaris in the control of appetite, energy intake, and carbohydrate metabolism.
    Carai, MA, Fantini, N, Loi, B, Colombo, G, Riva, A, Morazzoni, P. Potential efficacy of preparations derived from Phaseolus vulgaris in the control of appetite, energy intake, and carbohydrate metabolism. Diabetes Metab Syndro Obes. 2009; 2: 145-53.
    This review examines data on extracts and preparations derived from beans as potential remedies for use in controlling food consumption, body weight, lipid accumulation, and glycemia.
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  • 2012, Nutritional Composition
    Pulse consumption in Canadian adults influences nutrient intakes.
    Mudryj, AN, Yu, N, Hartman, TJ, Mitchell, DC, Lawrence, FR, Aukema, HM. Pulse consumption in Canadian adults influences nutrient intakes. Br J Nutr. 2012; 108 (Suppl 1): S27-36.
    This cross-sectional analysis looked at the prevalence and effect of pulse consumption on nutrient intake in Canadian adults using data from the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 2.2. The highest quartile of pulse consumers compared to non-consumers had higher intakes of carbohydrates, fiber and protein. Pulse consumers also had enhanced micronutrient intake, and consumed one additional serving of fruits and vegetables compared to non-consumers.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2010, Weight Management
    Pulse consumption, satiety, and weight management.
    McCrory, MA, Hamaker, BR, Lovejoy, JC, Eichelsdoerfer, PE. Pulse consumption, satiety, and weight management. Adv Nutr. 2010; 1(1): 17-30.
    This paper reviews the evidence examining the role of pulse consumption on satiety and weight management. Overall, there is some indication of the beneficial effect of pulses on short-term satiety and weight loss during intentional energy restriction, but more studies are needed to investigate the amount of pulses to consume, and behavioral elements to help overcome barriers to pulse consumption.
    PubMed Abstract
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  • 2014, Cancer
    Purification and characterization of a glucosamine-binding antifungal lectin from Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Chinese pinto beans with antiproliferative activity towards nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells.
    Ang, AS, Cheung, RC, Dan, X, Chan, YS, Pan, W, Ng, TB. Purification and characterization of a glucosamine-binding antifungal lectin from Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Chinese pinto beans with antiproliferative activity towards nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2014; 172(2): 672-86.
    Chinese pinto bean lectin (CPBL) was isolated and tested against six fungal species. The lectin was able to suppress proliferation of nasopharyngeal carcinoma HONE-1 cells, which few plant lectins demonstrate. Therefore, the authors propose that CPBL may be useful to the development of an agent against HONE-1 cancer cells.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2015, Cancer
    Purification and characterization of a novel hemagglutinin with inhibitory activity toward osteocarcinoma cells from northeast China black beans.
    Dan, X, Wong, JH, Fang, EF, Chan, FC, Ng, TB. Purification and characterization of a novel hemagglutinin with inhibitory activity toward osteocarcinoma cells from northeast China black beans. J Agric Food Chem. 2015; 63(15): 3903-14.
    Novel hemagglutinin, sugar-binding protein, was isolated from legumes and its growth inhibitory effect on osteocarcinoma and liver cancer cells was explored. Antiproliferative activity was observed in the tumor cell lines MG-63 and HepG2. Treated osteocarcinoma cells underwent cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation, membrane depolarization, and apoptosis. The mRNA expression levels of cells were found to be up-regulated after treatment of hemagglutinin.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2016, Cancer
    Randomized controlled trial to increase navy bean or rice bran consumption in colorectal cancer survivors
    Borresen, EC et al. A randomized controlled trial to increase navy bean or rice bran consumption in colorectal cancer survivors. Nutr Cancer. 2016; 68(8): 1269-1280.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2017, Nutritional Composition
    Recent advances in y-aminobutyric acid (GABA) properties in pulses: an overview.
    Nikmaram, N, Dar, BN, Roohinejad, S, Koubaa, M, Barba, FJ, Greiner, R, Johnson, Sk. Recent advances in y-aminobutyric acid (GABA) properties in pulses: an overview. J Sci Food Agric. 2017; doi: 10.1002/jsfa.8283. [Epub ahead of print].
    The purpose of this review paper was to highlight the current state of knowledge on the occurrence of y-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in pulses with special focus on mechanisms by which GABA levels are increased and the analytical extraction and estimation methods for this bioactive phytochemical.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2012, Cancer
    Reduction in antiproliferative capacities, cell-based antioxidant capacities and phytochemical contents of common beans and soybeans upon thermal processing.
    Xu, B, Chang, SK. Reduction in antiproliferative capacities, cell-based antioxidant capacities and phytochemical contents of common beans and soybeans upon thermal processing. Food Chem. 2012; 129(3): 974-81.
    This study looked at the effects of boiling and steaming processes on the antiproliferative and cellular antioxidant properties, as well as phytochemicals, on pinto and black beans, and yellow and black soybeans. The investigation showed that all thermal processing methods have a significant impact on the phytochemical profiles and bioactivities, and reduce the health promoting effects of beans.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2012, Diabetes Insulin Resistance Metabolic Syndrome
    Regular consumption of pulses for 8 weeks reduces metabolic syndrome risk factors in overweight and obese adults.
    Mollard, RC, Luhovyy, BL, Panahi, S, Nunez, M, Hanley, A, Anderson, GH. Regular consumption of pulses for 8 weeks reduces metabolic syndrome risk factors in overweight and obese adults. Br J Nutr. 2012; 108 (Suppl 1): S111-22.
    The purpose of this study was to describe the effects of frequent consumption (five cups/week over 8 weeks) of pulses (yellow peas, chickpeas, navy beans and lentils), compared with counseling to reduce energy intake by 500 kcal/d, on metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) risk factors in two groups of overweight or obese adults. Frequent consumption of pulses in an ad libitum diet reduced risk factors of the MetSyn and these effects were equivalent, and in some instances stronger, than counseling for dietary energy reduction.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2012, Diabetes Insulin Resistance Metabolic Syndrome
    Regular, high, and moderate intake of vegetables rich in antioxidants may reduce cataract risk in Central African type 2 diabetics.
    Mvitu, M, Longo-Mbenza, B, Tulomba, D, Nge, A. Regular, high, and moderate intake of vegetables rich in antioxidants may reduce cataract risk in Central African type 2 diabetics. Int J Gen Med. 2012; 5: 489-93.
    In this study researchers assessed the frequency and contributing factors of intake of fruits and vegetables rich in antioxidants, including red beans, and their impact on the reduced risk of diabetes-related cataract extraction in Congolese adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Red beans intake and adequate intake of vegetables rich in antioxidants were found to be associated with a reduced risk of cataract in these Congolese with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
    PubMed Abstract
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  • 2015, Nutritional Composition
    Review: The potential of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) as a vehicle for iron biofortification.
    Petry, N, Boy, E, Wirth, JP, Hurrell, RF. Review: The potential of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) as a vehicle for iron biofortification. Nutrients. 2015; 7(2): 1144-73.
    This review examined the usefulness of common beans as a vehicle for iron biofortication. The researchers conclude that beans are a good vehicle for iron biofortification, and regular consumption would be helpful to combat iron deficiency.
    PubMed Abstract
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  • 2016, Other
    Seasoning ingredient variety, but not quality, is associated with greater intake of beans and rice among urban Costa Rican adults.
    Vadiveloo, MK, Campos, H, Mattei, J. Seasoning ingredient variety, but not quality, is associated with greater intake of beans and rice among urban Costa Rican adults. Nutr Res. 2016; 36(8): 780-80.
    This study surveyed Costa Rican adults about the variety of seasoning ingredients added when preparing beans or rice. The results suggest that increasing the variety of seasonings added to beans may be a culturally-appropriate strategy to improve intake of this healthy staple food among urban Costa Rican adults.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2015, Gut Health Probiotics
    Sex, body mass index, and dietary fiber intake influence the human gut microbiome.
    Dominianni, C, Sinha, R, Goedert, JJ, Pei, Z, Yang, L, Hayes, RB, Ahn, J. Sex, body mass index, and dietary fiber intake influence the human gut microbiome. PLoS One. 2015; 10(4): e0124599. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0124599.
    This study investigated the relationship of sex, body mass index, and dietary fiber intake on the gut microbiome in 82 humans. The findings suggest that sex, BMI, and dietary fiber contribute to shaping the gut microbiome in humans, and that a better understanding of these relationships may have significant implications for gastrointestinal health and reduced risk of disease.
    PubMed Abstract
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  • 2010, Other
    Sodium reduction in canned beans after draining, rinsing.
    Duyff, RL, Mount, JR, and Jones, JB. Sodium reduction in canned beans after draining, rinsing. Journal of Culinary Science and Technology. 2010; .
    The purpose of this study was to determine if draining and rinsing canned beans significantly reduced sodium. The study found that draining and draining/rinsing canned beans resulted in a significant reduction in sodium.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2012, Cancer
    Stimulation of the dendritic cell maturation and induction of apoptosis in leukemia cells by a heat-stable extract from azuki bean (Vigna angularis), a promising immunopotentiating food and dietary supplement for cancer prevention.
    Nakaya, K, Nabata, Y, Ichiyanagi, T, An, WW. Stimulation of the dendritic cell maturation and induction of apoptosis in leukemia cells by a heat-stable extract from azuki bean (Vigna angularis), a promising immunopotentiating food and dietary supplement for cancer prevention. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2012; 13(2): 607-11.
    This study examined 31 kinds of edible beans to determine roles in their role as an immunopotentiating food and in the reduced risk of cancer. It was determined that azuki extract produced the highest level of IL-6, as well as inhibited the growth of human leukemia U937 cells, leading to apoptosis. These results suggest that azuki bean and its extract are immunopotentiating foods that can be used as a dietary supplement to reduce the risk of cancer and immunotherapy.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2014, Other
    Texturized pinto bean protein fortification in straight double bread formulation.
    Simons, CW, Hunt-Schmidt, E, Simsek, S, Hall, C, Biswas, A. Texturized pinto bean protein fortification in straight double bread formulation. Plants Foods Hum Nutr. 2014; 69(3): 235-40.
    In this study, pinto beans were milled and processed to create a texturized high protein fraction (THPF). This fraction was milled and combined with wheat flour at various percentages to make bread. Bread made with 5% THPF resulted in the highest quality product and was not significantly different from the control. It also resulted in 48% more lysine content, suggesting this as a means to enhance lysine content of white pan bread.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2014, Glycemic Index
    The acute effect of commercially available pulse powders on postprandial glycaemic response in healthy young men.
    Anderson, GH, Liu, Y, Smith, CE, Liu, TT, Nunez, MF, Mollard, RC, Luhovyy, BL. The acute effect of commercially available pulse powders on postprandial glycaemic response in healthy young men. Br J Nutr. 2014; 112(12): 1966-73.
    This study examined the effects of commercially prepared pulse powders on blood glucose response before and after a subsequent meal in healthy young men. The results demonstrated that processing pulses to powder does not eliminate the benefits of whole pulses on blood glucose response. Pulse powder may be an effective strategy to increase the dietary intake of pulses.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2012, Glycemic Index
    The acute effects of a pulse-containing meal on glycaemic responses and measures of satiety and satiation within and at a later meal.
    Mollard, RC, Zykus, A, Luhovyy, BL, Nunez, MF, Wong, CL, Anderson, GH. The acute effects of a pulse-containing meal on glycaemic responses and measures of satiety and satiation within and at a later meal. Br J Nutr. 2012; 108(3): 509-17.
    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of an ad libitum pulse meal on food intake, appetite and blood glucose (BG) before and after a test meal and on food intake at the test meal. The results of this study showed that consumption of pulses in a high-glycemic meal contributes to earlier satiation, lower BG following the meal and after a later meal, but these effects are specific to pulse type and cannot be explained by their glycemic properties alone.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2019, Other
    The effect of cell wall encapsulation on macronutrients digestion: A case study in kidney beans.
    Rovalino-Córdova AM, Fogliano V, Capuano E. The effect of cell wall encapsulation on macronutrients digestion: A case study in kidney beans. Food Chem. 2019; 286:557-566.
    Cotyledon cells in kidney beans naturally encapsulate starch and proteins limiting the access of digestive enzymes to their substrates. In this study, we investigated the effect of cell wall on bean protein digestibility and its relationship with starch digestion. Results showed that proteins contained in the cytoplasmic matrix influence the rate at which starch is digested in-vitro. Confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that storage proteins in the cytoplasm act as a second encapsulation system preventing starch digestion. This microstructural organization only affected starch since no changes in protein digestion rate or extent were observed due to the presence of starch granules. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed that cellular entrapment limited protein denaturation induced by thermal treatments. High concentrations of a fraction resistant to digestion were found in proteins that were heated when entrapped within intact cotyledon cells, compared to those thermally treated as bean flour.
    PubMed Abstract
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  • 2015, Weight Management
    The effects of a beef-based meal compared to a calorie matched bean-based meal on appetite and food intake.
    Bonnema, AL, Altschwager, D, Thomas, W, Slavin, JL. The effects of a beef-based meal compared to a calorie matched bean-based meal on appetite and food intake. J Food Sci. 2015; 80(9): H2088-93.
    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a high protein meal (beef) compared to a moderate protein, high fiber meal (beans) on subjective appetite and energy intake. The results indicate that a beef-based meal with high protein and a bean-based meal with moderate protein and high fiber produced similar satiety, while the bean-based meal resulted in a higher, yet moderate, gas and bloating.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2015, Other
    The environmental cost of protein food choices.
    Sranacharoenpong, K, Soret, S, Harwatt, H, Wien, M, Sabate, J. The environmental cost of protein food choices. Public Health Nutr. 2015; 18(11): 2067-73.
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the resource efficiency and environmental impacts of producing one kilogram of edible protein from two plant- and three animal-protein sources. Producing 1 kg of protein from kidney beans required approximately 18 times less land, 10 times less water, 9 times less fuel, 12 times less fertilizer, and 10 times less pesticide in comparison to producing 1 kg of protein from beef.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2013, Aging Longevity
    The Nicoya region of Costa Rica: a high longevity island for elderly males.
    Rosero-Bixby, L, Dow, WH, Rehkopf, DH. . The Nicoya region of Costa Rica: a high longevity island for elderly males. Vienna Yearby Popul Re.. 2013; 11: 109-136.
    The Nicoya region of Costa Rica is a hot spot for longevity, particularly for men. A number of factors are discussed in this paper that may contribute to this longer life expectancy, including a diet abundant in traditional foods like beans.
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  • 2010, Nutritional Composition
    The potential health benefits of legumes as a good source of dietary fibre.
    Trinidad, TP, Mallililin, AC, Loyola, AS, Sagum, RS, Encabo, RR. The potential health benefits of legumes as a good source of dietary fibre. Br J Nutr. 2010; 103(4): 569-74.
    The purpose of this study was to determine the potential health benefits of legumes as a good source of dietary fiber. The data suggests that mineral availability from legumes differs and may be attributed to their mineral content, mineral-mineral interaction, and from their phytic and tannic acid content.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2013, Diabetes Insulin Resistance Metabolic Syndrome
    The protective effect of phaseolus vulgaris on cataract in type 2 diabetes: a profitable hypothesis.
    Longo-Mbenza, B, Muaka, M. The protective effect of phaseolus vulgaris on cataract in type 2 diabetes: a profitable hypothesis. Med Hypothesis Discov Innov Opthalmol. 2013; 2(4): 105-8.
    The researchers hypothesize that based on findings from previous epidemiologic studies establishing the antioxidant activity of common beans to help control blood glucose, dietary supplements of bean can be a low-cost prevention approach to reduce cataract and other visual comorbidity associated with T2DM.
    PubMed Abstract
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  • 2016, Diabetes Insulin Resistance Metabolic Syndrome
    The role of pulses in the dietary management of diabetes.
    Ramdath, D, Renwick, S, Duncan, AM. The role of pulses in the dietary management of diabetes. Can J Diabetes. 2016; 40(4): 355-63.
    This review examines the role of pulses in the management of diabetes, and suggests that available evidence provides very good support for a role of regular pulse consumption in the reduced risk and management of diabetes.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2018, Overall Nutrition Health Benefits
    Untargeted 1H NMR-Based Metabolomics Analysis of Urine and Serum Profiles after Consumption of Lentils, Chickpeas, and Beans: An Extended Meal Study To Discover Dietary Biomarkers of Pulses.
    Madrid-Gambin F, Brunius C, Garcia-Aloy M, Estruel-Amades S, Landberg R, Andres-Lacueva C. Untargeted 1H NMR-Based Metabolomics Analysis of Urine and Serum Profiles after Consumption of Lentils, Chickpeas, and Beans: An Extended Meal Study To Discover Dietary Biomarkers of Pulses. J Agric Food Chem. 2018; 66(27):6997-7005.
    High legume intake has been shown to have beneficial effects on the health of humans. The use of nutritional biomarkers, as a complement to self-reported questionnaires, could assist in evaluating dietary intake and downstream effects on human health. The aim of this study was to investigate potential biomarkers of the consumption of pulses (i.e., white beans, chickpeas, and lentils) by using untargeted NMR-based metabolomics. Meals rich in pulses were consumed by a total of 11 participants in a randomized crossover study and multilevel partial least-squares regression was employed for paired comparisons. Metabolomics analysis indicated that trigonelline, 3-methylhistidine, dimethylglycine, trimethylamine, and lysine were potential, though not highly specific, biomarkers of pulse intake. Furthermore, monitoring of these metabolites for a period of 48 h after intake revealed a range of different excretion patterns among pulses. Following the consumption of pulses, a metabolomic profiling revealed that the concentration ratios of trigonelline, choline, lysine, and histidine were similar to those found in urine. In conclusion, this study identified potential urinary biomarkers of exposure to dietary pulses and provided valuable information about the time-response effect of these putative biomarkers.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2014, Other
    Use of different spices as potential natural antioxidant additives on cooked beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Increase of DPPH radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content.
    Pereira, MP, Tavano, OL. Use of different spices as potential natural antioxidant additives on cooked beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Increase of DPPH radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2014; 69(4): 337-43.
    This aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different spices and their concentrations on cooked common beans, focusing its potential as antioxidant additives. Onions, parsley, spring onion, laurel, and coriander added at various levels to cooked beans increased the antioxidant activity, total phenolics, and minimally altered the protein digestibility.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2013, Other
    Vegetable cost metrics show that potatoes and beans most nutrients per penny.
    Drewnowski, A, Rehm, CD. Vegetable cost metrics show that potatoes and beans most nutrients per penny. PLoS One. 2013; 8(5): e63277.
    This study estimated the cost impact of meeting the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) requirements for vegetables using 2008 national prices for 98 vegetables, fresh, frozen, and canned. For the most frequently consumed vegetables, potatoes and beans were the lowest-cost source of potassium and fiber, and provide the best nutritional value per penny.
    PubMed Abstract
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  • 2015, Gut Health Probiotics
    White and dark kidney beans reduce colonic mucosal damage and inflammation in response to dextran sodium sulfate.
    Monk, JM et al. White and dark kidney beans reduce colonic mucosal damage and inflammation in response to dextran sodium sulfate. J Nutr Biochem. 2015; 26(7): 752-60.
    This study assessed the gut-health promoting potential of kidney beans (white and dark kidney) in healthy mice and their ability to attenuate colonic inflammation following dextran sodium sulphate exposure. Both white kidney and dark kidney bean-supplemented diets enhanced microbial-derived short chain fatty acids metabolite production, gut barrier integrity and the microbial defensive response in the healthy colon, which supported an anti-inflammatory phenotype during colitis. This data demonstrate a beneficial colon-function priming effect of bean consumption that mitigates colitis severity.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2016, Cancer
    White kidney bean lectin exerts anti-proliferative and apoptopic effects on cancer cells.
    Chan, YS, Xia, L, Ng, TB. White kidney bean lectin exerts anti-proliferative and apoptopic effects on cancer cells. Int J Biol Macromol. 2016; 85: 335-45.
    Lectin was purified from white kidney beans to determine its anti-proliferative activity. Analysis revealed that apoptosis was induced on HONE1 and HepG2 cells treated with white kidney bean lectin (WKBL). The HONE1 cells treated with WKBL also showed a slight cell cycle arrest.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2019, Heart Health
    Whole flour and protein hydrolysate from common beans reduce the inflammation in BALB/c mice fed with high fat high cholesterol diet.
    de Lima SLS, Gomes MJC, da Silva BP, Alves NEG, Toledo RCL, Theodoro JMV, Moreira MEC, Bento JAC, Bassinello PZ, da Matta SLP, De Mejía EG, Martino HSD. Whole flour and protein hydrolysate from common beans reduce the inflammation in BALB/c mice fed with high fat high cholesterol diet. Food Res Int. 2019; 122:330-339.
    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is a source of bioactive peptides, but little is known about its effects on hypercholesterolemia, oxidative stress, and the inflammatory process. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of whole flour and bean protein hydrolysate of common bean variety Carioca on inflammation and oxidative stress in BALB/c mice. Four experimental groups were included in the study: standard diet (SD), high fat high cholesterol diet (HFC), high fat high cholesterol diet and whole bean flour (HFC-F); and high fat high cholesterol diet and bean protein hydrolysate (HFC-PH). Animals fed with bean protein hydrolysate showed lower weight gain and food intake. Animals fed with whole bean flour showed lower alanine aminotransferase and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels than animals fed with bean protein hydrolysate. SOD mRNA was lower in HFC, HFC-F and HFC-PH groups whereas SOD concentration was higher in HFC-F and HFC-PH groups. HSP72 mRNA expression was lower in the HFC-F group in relation to HFC-PH. IL-10 and PPARα mRNA expression was lower in HFC-F and HFC-PH groups in comparison with SD. The whole bean flour and bean protein hydrolysate reduced inflammation and the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in BALB/c mice.
    PubMed Abstract
  • 2009, Diabetes Insulin Resistance Metabolic Syndrome
    Whole grain and legume acceptability among youths with type 1 diabetes.
    Gellar, L, Rovner, AJ, Nansel, TR. Whole grain and legume acceptability among youths with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Educ. 2009; 35(3): 422-7.
    This pilot study investigated the acceptability of whole grain and legume foods in youths with type 1 diabetes and determined demographic and behavioral factors associated with their acceptability. One hundred twenty-eight (128) youth participated, and chili with beans and baked beans were the legume-containing foods with the highest acceptability.
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  • 2014, Overall Nutrition Health Benefits
    Whole grains and pulses: a comparison of the nutritional and health benefits.
    Rebello, CJ, Greenway, FL, Finley, JW. Whole grains and pulses: a comparison of the nutritional and health benefits. J Agric Food Chem. 2014; 62(29): 7029-49.
    This paper examines and compares the nutritional and health benefits of pulses and whole grains. Pulses and whole grains have positive nutrition profiles, and observational and intervention trials have demonstrated beneficial effects on the treatment and management of disease from both foods.
    PubMed Abstract